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What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Mouse ESC Heterogeneity, human MSC Immunosuppression, Leydig Stem Cell Autografting, and MSC Proangiogenic Efficacy!

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The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Histone Acetyltransferase-mediated Regulation of Mouse ESCs Heterogeneity

While many studies have indicated a probable link between mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) fate decisions and increased transcriptional heterogeneity, we know little regarding the underlying controlling molecular mechanisms. Now, researchers led by Cristina Pina (University of Cambridge, UK) have established that inhibition of the Kat2a histone acetyltransferase leads to increased transcriptional heterogeneity in mESCs and an increased probability of exit from pluripotency. Overall, this STEM CELLS article links chromatin modification and transcriptional heterogeneity to cell fate decisions and highlights the importance of these links to a better understanding of development and disease.

Metabolism Underpins Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Immunosuppression

Recent research has highlighted the ability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to actively reconfigure their metabolism to boost tissue repair, although quite how hMSCs regulate their energy metabolism to support immunomodulation remains mostly unknown. Now, scientists from the lab of Teng Ma (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA) have demonstrated that hMSC immune polarization by interferon‐gamma (IFN‐γ) treatment leads to a remodeling of hMSC metabolic pathways toward glycolysis (required for the secretion of immunosuppressive factors) and highlighted the importance of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Overall, Liu et al. hope that their STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article now demonstrates the potential of altering hMSC metabolism to enhance their immunomodulatory properties and therapeutic efficacy in various diseases.

Subcutaneous Leydig Stem Cell Autografts for Testosterone Deficiency Treatment

Leydig stem cell (LSC) transplantation represents a possible alternative to the currently problematic exogenous testosterone therapies employed to treat testosterone deficiency; however, testicular injection of LSCs is not clinically feasible. Now, research led by Ranjith Ramasamy (University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA) and published in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine examined the feasibility of subcutaneously autografting LSCs in combination with Sertoli and myoid cells to increase testosterone levels. Excitingly, Arora et al. now demonstrate that this approach is safe and effective for men with low testosterone who desire fertility preservation; the authors suggest that this therapy may represent a paradigm shift in this area.

 

Biomarker of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Proangiogenic Efficacy

The clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of ischemic disease currently suffers from poor cell engraftment and inconsistent stem cell potency. However, exciting new research from the lab of Young Ae Joe (Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea) has now established efficient biomarkers for the prediction of vascular regenerative efficacy in the treatment of ischemic diseases. Kim et al. sought correlations between secretion profile of paracrine factors in vitro with in vivo pro-angiogenic activities and uncovered angiogenin, interleukin-8 (IL8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as important factors. For all the details on this exciting advance, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!