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What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - hCPC Releases EVs, Bone Marrow Nestin-expressing Cells, CRISPR Screen in Cardiac Fibroblasts, and Melanoma Initiating Cell Plasticity!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Allogeneic-Driven-Benefit of hCPC-Released Extracellular Vesicles

Recent research from the lab of Reem Al‐Daccak (Hôpital Saint Louis, Paris, France) established that paracrine acting factors released from allogeneic human cardiac stem/progenitor cells (hCPC) positively impacted cardiac repair/regeneration post-myocardial infarction (MI). Now the team returns with a STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article that now reports proof‐of‐concept for the active contribution of extracellular vesicles. Hocine et al. suggest that the application of allogeneic hCPCs followed by extracellular vesicles will not only elicit the cell‐contact mediated reparative/regenerative immune response but also provide the desired long‐lasting effects.

Notch Signaling in  Nestin-expressing Bone Marrow Cells

To better understand the role of Notch signaling from the Nestin‐expressing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that comprise the hematopoietic stem cell niche in myeloproliferative phenotypes, researchers led by Shigeru Chiba (University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan) engineered labeled MSCs with conditional disruption of Notch signaling. Sakamoto et al. observed impaired erythroid differentiation in the bone marrow thanks to the upregulation of Interleukin-6 in macrophages. Therefore, this STEM CELLS study suggests that the interaction between macrophages and Nestin‐expressing MSCs regulates erythropoiesis in the bone marrow.

CRISPR Screen Highlights Chemical Factors that Convert Cardiac Fibroblasts into Progenitors

The direct in vivo reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into myocytes is an attractive therapeutic intervention in resolving myogenic deterioration, although the currently employed strategies suffer from several problems. To circumvent said problems, researchers from the lab of Kosuke Yusa (Wellcome Sanger Institute, UK) employed a genome‐wide knockout screen with a CRISPR‐gRNA library to identify novel mediators that regulate the chemical reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into progenitors that can differentiate into endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Overall, Yu et al. establish DNA methyltransferase 1‐associated protein 1 (Dmap1) as a modulator of cardiac reprogramming and myocytic induction in their exciting STEM CELLS article.

Notch1 signaling in Cancer‐associated Fibroblasts dictates Melanoma Initiating Cell Plasticity

Researchers led by Zhao‐Jun Liu (University of Miami, Florida, USA) recently sought to uncover the molecular mechanisms that determine how cancer‐associated fibroblasts (CAFs) modulate the plasticity of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Du et al. established that Notch1 signaling from CAFs inversely controls the stromal regulation of the plasticity/stemness of melanoma-initiating cells, thereby modulating melanoma heterogeneity and aggressiveness. The authors of this recent STEM CELLS report believe that targeting the intracellular Notch1 signaling pathway in CAFs may present a new therapeutic strategy for melanoma.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!