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Complex Disease Models from 3D Brain Organoids

A new STEM CELLS review article stresses the importance of implementing complex 3D brain organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Researchers led by Kristine K. Freude (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) note that brain organoids should contain contributions from various brain regions, such as the assembloids formed by the fusion of cortical and thalamic organoids. Chandrasekaran et al. also underscore the relevance of protein and post-translational modifications of proteins to disease development and progression, as illustrated by schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disease with highly diverse risk gene contribution. Overall, the authors hope that their insight will contribute to a better understanding of complex neurological diseases.