Do cartilage tissue cultures need high oxygenation? What is the in vivo oxygen level of normal cartilage?
The oxygen needs of some types of cartilage is less than that of other tissue types as these tissues are less metabolically active. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O2, while the deep zone exists at less than 1% O2.
Which would be best biomaterial for 3d bioprinting / tissue engineering for cardiac?
This depends on many factors and I'm afraid an attepmpt to provide a brief answer would not do the topic justice. From a fundamental point of view, the best material would be the exact same composition and organization of cardiac tissue itself. This would be ideal for cell and mechanical function, however the challenge is how to make such a material compatible with bioprinting.
If you are interested in going into the field as a technician with a two-year degree, is a tissue cell background/concentration the best approach, or a more specialized stem cell background better?
Either would be completely fine as good cell culture technique can be adapted to other cell types. Both tissue derived cells and (some) stem cell types are challengine to grow and maintain so this is a very useful skill vs being able to grow cell lines or cancer cells.
Would tissue engineering, bio-printing, or a different approach allow for the replacement of an entire arm/leg or even a penis or female genitalia within this decade?
A combination of multiple technologies (existing and future) would be needed to acheive such a task. The requirements for resolution, precision, speed and scale are beyond a single fabrication approach that we currently have.
What type of software do you recommend to translate DICOM to CAD?
I have previously used Materialize Mimics software but there are a large range of softwares available that can do this well now.
Do the recipient's cells replace the scaffold with their own secreted matrix?
Ideally, this is what we want to happen. The scaffold material would degrade over time as the cells deposit the native extracellular matrix.
[During the webinar]…when you discussed the use of OTEs together, such as the liver OTE metabolizing a drug and then the metabolites affecting other OTES, does that mean you put them in the same container of fluid, floating around, or are they fixed to some matrix? And does that mean they all have the same support fluid?
The integrated OTEs are arranged, in series, within a single microfluidic circuit...all under a common medium. The OTEs are immobilized in a hydrogel substrate within a chamber in the chip.