Th temporally-regulated expression of Tert marks SSCs in a discrete phase of transitional growth
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Summaries of the most recent articles published in STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.
OPRK1 agonists hinder adult neurogenesis through the miR‐7a‐5p-dependent regulation of Pax6 expression
Intracellular MMP9 expression aids the differentiation of human cardiac stem cells via epigenetic modifications and autophagy
IGFBPs enable IGF1 function during the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into retinal organoids
A new study evaluates the BMSC and EPC cotransplantation in a rabbit model of steroid‐induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head
A new review summarizes those mechanisms involved in the treatment of stroke and myocardial ischemia with stem cell‐derived EVs
Researchers describe a novel role of ERG1 in the differentiation process of cardiomyocytes
A new article describes a protocol for the intravenous delivery of cell therapy in neonates
Defective adult neurogenesis has been associated with psychiatric disorders, including depressive disorder, with the kappa opioid receptor (OPRK1) acting as a crucial mediator of depressive‐like behaviors. In a new STEM CELLS article from the laboratory of Chi Xu (Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China), researchers now demonstrate that OPRK1 agonists hinder hippocampal adult neurogenesis through a pathway involving the miR‐7a‐5p-dependent regulation of Pax6 expression, a transcriptional factor that controls neuronal differentiation. Overall, the authors hope that this study may provide a means to develop novel therapies for depression.
Recent research from Santosh K. Yadav and Paras K. Mishra (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA) has revealed a novel intracellular role for matrix metalloproteinase‐9 (MMP9) in the regulation of human cardiac stem cells differentiation via epigenetic modifications and autophagy. The authors of this recent STEM CELLS article hope that their findings will provide a means to improve stem cell therapies.
In vitro models such as retinal organoids provide information regarding the molecular mechanisms that occur during retinal development. Insulin growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) regulate cell activity by controlling the interaction of insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) with their receptors and subsequent signaling processes. In a recent STEM CELLS article from the lab of Majlinda Lako (Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK), Zerti et al. focused on modeling the role of IGFBPs in human retinal organoid development as a means to understand human retinal histogenesis. Their findings now confirm that IGFBPs enable IGF1 function in retinal lamination and photoreceptor development during the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into retinal organoids.
Insufficient osteogenesis and angiogenesis limit the success of cell‐based therapies for skeletal diseases. Researchers led by Jiasong Guo and Lixin Zhu (Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China) recently evaluated the potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) cotransplantation in a rabbit model of steroid‐induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Writing in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, Xu et al. now report that BMSCs and EPCs transplanted within a carboxymethyl chitosan/alginate scaffold prompt repair via enhanced osteogenesis/angiogenesis and reduced adipogenesis.
Stem cell‐derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) exhibit great potential as a therapeutic tool in myocardial infarction and cerebral ischemia; however, the underlying mechanisms involved remain unclear. In a recent STEM CELLS review article, researchers led by Thorsten R. Doeppner (University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany) now summarize those mechanisms involved in the treatment of stroke and myocardial ischemia with stem cell‐derived EVs.
The ERG1 potassium channel, encoded by the Kcnh2 gene, maintains the action potential of cardiomyocytes, and gene mutations have been linked with arrhythmias. A recent STEM CELLS article from research groups based in China and the USA now describes a novel role of ERG1 in the differentiation process of cardiomyocytes. Wang et al. discovered that the interaction of ERG1 with integrin β1/FAK/PI3K p85 to activate AKT promotes rat embryonic stem cell‐derived cardiomyocyte lineage commitment. Overall, this study expands our understanding of classical functional molecules and provides new evidence for the complex mechanisms of heart development.
While the challenges surrounding the translation of preclinical discoveries in neonatal medicine have been discussed at length, a simple yet fundamental hurdle has been overlooked - a protocol for the intravenous delivery of cell therapy in neonates. In a new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article, researchers led by Elizabeth K. Baker (Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia) now present findings that should draw attention to the urgent need for evaluation of neonatal infusion protocols and provide the basis on which future protocols could be developed.
Researchers led by Camillo Ricordi (University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA) recently reported the results of a double‐blind, randomized, controlled, early-phase clinical trial of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment in subjects with COVID‐19 acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lanzoni et al. note fewer serious adverse events in the treatment compared to the control group, while exploratory efficacy analyses provide evidence of significantly improved patient survival and time to recovery. These findings strongly support further investigation in a larger trial to estimate and establish efficacy and influence clinical practice and future research in the fields of acute respiratory distress syndrome, COVID‐19, and other immune‐related disorders. For more details, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!
The first clinical trial specifically designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of transplantation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mixed cell types) with those of purified CD34+ cells in the treatment of angiitis‐induced no‐option critical limb ischemia was initiated in 2014. Now, researchers led by Zhihui Dong and Weiguo Fu (Zhongshan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, China) report on the mid‐term outcomes of this study, which demonstrated similar satisfactory efficacy and safety profiles for the two therapies and supported the more precise application of cell therapy under different conditions. For all the details, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!
Robust parameter design (RPD) is a multifactorial condition screening tool utilized mainly in industry for developing qualified product design and manufacturing processes. In a recent STEM CELLS article from the labs of Keisuke Sekine (National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo) and Hideki Taniguchi (University of Tokyo, Japan), Yasui et al. report on the application of RPD to establish human induced pluripotent stem cell differentiation protocols that specifically induced anterior foregut, hepatic, pancreatic, or mid‐hindgut cells with much-increased efficiency. Overall, the authors note RPD as a promising tool for the efficient optimization of pluripotent stem cell differentiation protocols.