A new study notes the importance of Notch signaling in the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells and their niches
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Summaries of the most recent articles published in STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.
A new study uncovers the detailed molecular bases of PRC1.6 function in mouse embryonic stem cells through an evaluation of MGA activity
A new study provides valuable information regarding the biodistribution and regulatory capacity of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs)
A new review highlights the most relevant basic and translational research of perivascular cell biology with a focus on bone regeneration
A new study describes the mechanisms regulating PD-L1 expression during stem cell differentiation and cancer cell plasticity
Researchers establish hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a potentially exciting therapy bone repair in osteogenesis imperfecta
DUSP5 promotes the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs by activating SMAD1 signaling in an SCP1/2 dependent manner
Bone marrow-derived cells actively participate in postpartum uterus remodeling in the mouse
Non-canonical PRC1.6 functions to inhibit the precocious and ectopic onset of meiosis in germ cells and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), respectively. Uncovering the detailed molecular bases of PRC1.6 function remains a priority as PRC1.6 disruption may be directly linked to embryonic lethality and infertility. In a new STEM CELLS article, researchers led by Ayumu Suzuki and Akihiko Okuda (Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan)address this issue by characterizing MGA (MAX Dimerization Protein), one of the essential components of the PRC1.6 complex. These data revealed that MGA functions to repress numerous genes in mESCs (meiosis-related genes, in particular) through two distinct DNA binding domains. This article data also identified MEIOSIN as a linchpin molecule in the transition from negative to positive regulation on meiotic onset (Image - Model illustrating the role of MEIOSIN as a linchpin molecule controlling ectopic onset of meiosis in mouse ESCs).
Graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) limits successful outcomes following allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). In a new STEM CELLS study, researchers led by Leland Metheny (UH Seidman Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH, USA) examined whether the administration of human, bone marrow-derived, multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) could regulate experimental GvHD in vivo using established murine GvHD models. Overall, their findings provide valuable information regarding the biodistribution and regulatory capacity of MAPCs, which may inform future clinical trial design and support MAPC use.
Perivascular cells are a heterogeneous population of mesenchymal progenitors. The outermost layer of the vessel wall forms a niche with a high density and diversity of progenitors, which are also called adventitial cells. Several antigens, including CD10, CD107, CD140a, and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, have been identified in adventitial cells showing distinct differentiation potentials, which has implications for bone repair. In particular, adipose tissue holds great promise for bone tissue engineering due to its high content of mesenchymal progenitors, including bone-forming subsets. Now, a new STEM CELLS article from the lab of Aaron W. James (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA) highlights the most relevant basic and translational research of perivascular cell biology with a focus on bone regeneration.
The Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-mediated immune checkpoint has been exploited for cancer treatments and allografts; however, the mechanisms regulating PD-L1 expression during stem cell differentiation and cancer cell plasticity remain unclear. In a new STEM CELLS article, researchers led by Shih-Hwa Chiou (Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei) and Yu-Ting Chou (National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, China) report that SOX2-mediated epigenetic control regulates PD-L1 expression during stem cell differentiation and contributes to heterogeneous PD-L1 expression in lung cancer cells. The results from Kuo et al. further indicate that crosstalk between SOX2-mediated epigenetic programming and cytokine signaling of TGF-β and HBEGF/EGFR affects PD-L1 expression during stem cell differentiation and cancer cell plasticity. Overall, this study may provide insights into PD-L1-mediated cancer therapeutics and regenerative medicines.
Long-term treatment drug treatments that increase overall bone strength in osteogenesis imperfecta patients suffer from detrimental side effects. In a new STEM CELLS study, researchers led by Meenal Mehrotra (Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA) unequivocally established that transplanting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can improve clinical outcomes in osteogenesis imperfecta by differentiating into osteoblasts, which lay down normal collagen. Therefore, Kang et al. establish HSC transplantation as a potentially exciting therapy bone repair in osteogenesis imperfecta and other bone diseases (Images - HSCs differentiate to osteoblasts in pOBCol2.3GFP HSC transplanted OI mice).
DUSP5 plays a crucial regulatory role in the signaling pathway transduction by dephosphorylating phosphoserine/phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine; however, the participation of DUSP5 in osteogenesis remains unclear. In a recent STEM CELLS article, researchers led by Yongsheng Zhou and Ping Zhang (Peking University, Beijing, China) demonstrate that DUSP5 promotes the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by activating SMAD1 signaling in an SCP1/2 dependent manner. Furthermore, Liu et al. report that the linker region of DUSP5 may represent a novel chemically modifiable target for the control of MSC fate choice and improved osteoporosis treatment.
The uterus undergoes significant tissue regeneration in the postpartum period following parturition, where endometrial stem cells may play a key role. Now, a new STEM CELLS study from researchers led by Reshef Tal (Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA) reports that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) actively participate in postpartum uterus remodeling in the mouse, undergoing dynamic changes and contributing to various non-immune endometrial cell populations as part of the process of cellular turnover and regeneration. Overall, these observations may have important implications for human uterine physiology and pathological conditions such as postpartum uterine scarring (Image - schematic of the experimental model).
A new perspective article from researchers led by Gary M. Green (Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA) addresses workforce development in regenerative medicine, providing an overview of the skills needed for the technical workforce and an assessment of the current existing skill gaps in the labor market. This STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article will inform faculty development, curriculum development and alignment, regenerative medicine work-based learning, and efforts to develop a diverse and inclusive workforce and provide the rationale for federal and state workforce development policy and investments.
A new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article from José Becerra and Ivan Duran (University of Málaga, IBIMA, Málaga, Spain) summarizes our current understanding of frailty from processes mediated by inflammation, aging, and stem cells to provide a new perspective that unifies efforts in producing advanced therapies against frailty-related medical conditions. The authors believe these approaches possess particular relevance to COVID-19, as frail patients die more frequently due to the associated hyperinflammatory process.
In a new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article, researchers led by Todd Sulchek (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA) and Budd A. Tucker (University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA) discuss the application of state-of-the-art microfluidic devices to stem cell transfection and post-differentiation cell enrichment (specifically, to the development of photoreceptor cells from induced pluripotent stem cells [iPSCs]). Stone et al. discuss how microfluidic approaches avoid using specialized reagents, reduce the regulatory burden, and address manufacturing challenges associated with autologous cell replacement.