The adult hair follicle cycles through regression, resting, and growth phases and is maintained by hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs). During hair growth, progenitors and stem cells of the hair follicle activate and sustain the downward growth of hair follicles; however, our understanding of progenitor activation and stem cell maintenance during the hair cycle remains incomplete.
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Summaries of the most recent articles published in STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.
Histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of endothelial integrity, and while we know that short open reading frames (sORFs) exist within the 5′ terminal non‐coding area of Hdac7 mRNA, it remains unclear whether these sORFs contribute to HADC7 function.
Perivascular adventitial cells include multipotent progenitor cells that give rise to mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in culture.
A recent STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article reporting on a prospective non-r
Renal fibrosis treatment strategies have previously employed the intravascular administration of stem cells.
While we understand the critical nature of intestinal stem cells (ISC)-stem cell niche interactions in maintaining tissue integrity, we still lack clarity regarding the transmission of ISC niche factors.
Cell‐based therapies have the potential to improve outcomes of orally-associated regenerative treatments; as an example, mesenchymal stem cells currently represent ideal candidates for adjuvant application for extraction sockets and challenging lateral/vertical bone defects requiring bone block grafts.
Histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of endothelial integrity, and while we know that short open reading frames (sORFs) exist within the 5′ terminal non‐coding area of Hdac7 mRNA, it remains unclear whether these sORFs contribute to HADC7 function. In a recent STEM CELLS study, researcher from the laboratories of Qian Wang (Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China) and Lingfang Zeng (King's College London, UK) now report that a 7‐amino acid peptide translated from an HDAC7 sORF act as a phosphate group carrier, thereby forming a novel signal transduction pathway known as the MEKK1‐7A‐14‐3‐3γ pathway downstream of VEGF. Yang et al. believe that this novel signal pathway may be involved in vessel wall resident stem/progenitor cell activation and vascular remodeling.
Perivascular adventitial cells include multipotent progenitor cells that give rise to mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in culture. Now, a new STEM CELLS article from laboratories of Haixiang Sun (Nanjing University, Nanjing, China) and Bruno Péault (University of Edinburgh, UK) reports that a subset of human adventitial cells natively expresses the CD10 surface marker, which is regulated by Sonic hedgehog/GLI1 signaling. Furthermore, Ding et al. establish that purified CD10+ adventitial cells exhibit high proliferative, clonogenic, and osteogenic potentials, thereby suggesting a role in pathologic vascular remodeling.
A recent STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article reporting on a prospective non-randomized study in preterm infants established that autologous cord blood cell infusions can substantially reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen supplementation required. Researchers from the laboratory of Jie Yang (Guangzhou Medical, Guangdong, China) understood that preterm birth complications represent a major cause of neonatal death and also that we currently lack therapies that can alleviate associated symptoms; however, Ren et al. believe that stem cell treatments may be helpful in the prevention of said preterm complications.
Renal fibrosis treatment strategies have previously employed the intravascular administration of stem cells. Now, a new study from the laboratory of Tatsuya Shimizu (Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku‐ku, Tokyo, Japan) has revealed that the transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) sheets onto the kidney provide for dramatic therapeutic effects. These included long‐term cell survival, amelioration of kidney dysfunction, vasoprotection, and a reduction in fibrosis when compared with intravenous administration of MSCs. Overall, Imafuku et al. suggest that cell sheet technology could improve stem cell therapy in various aspects and may represent a novel therapeutic approach for various kidney diseases in the future. For more, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!
While we understand the critical nature of intestinal stem cells (ISC)-stem cell niche interactions in maintaining tissue integrity, we still lack clarity regarding the transmission of ISC niche factors. Now, new research from the laboratory of Zoltán Wiener (Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary) provides evidence that fibroblast‐derived extracellular vesicles can modify the activity of epidermal growth factor, one of the critical niche factors, via the transport of amphiregulin. See Osvald et al. in STEM CELLS now for more on how extracellular vesicles represent a novel intercellular signal transmission mechanism for normal ISCs.
Cell‐based therapies have the potential to improve outcomes of orally-associated regenerative treatments; as an example, mesenchymal stem cells currently represent ideal candidates for adjuvant application for extraction sockets and challenging lateral/vertical bone defects requiring bone block grafts. However, a new review article from the laboratory of Federico Moreno Sancho (UCL Eastman Dental Institute, London, UK) establishes that there exists insufficient evidence to identify best‐performing treatment modalities among the cell‐based techniques. The authors note that we must elucidate the clinical benefit of “substantial manipulation” of tissues and cells when compared with “minimal manipulation” and highlight the need for further research that evaluates the effectiveness of simple, fast, and economical methods for cell harvesting and processing. For all the details, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now.
A new study led by researchers from the lab of Steven Dow (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA) recently reported the antimicrobial properties of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Chow et al. have extended the results of previous studies by describing both the direct antimicrobial activity of MSCs and the indirect antimicrobial effects mediated via interaction with host innate immune cells. Excitingly, this new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study describes in detail how MSC secreted factors augment the antimicrobial activity of conventional antibiotics, including enhanced activity against drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Overall, the authors propose the utility of systemic delivery activated MSCs for the treatment of chronic drug‐resistant infection in human patients.
The tripartite‐motif (TRIM) family of proteins participate in a variety of cellular functions and biological processes, and recent data has revealed their significant role in the acquisition and maintenance of the stem cell phenotype. Now, a new study from the laboratory of Patrycja Czerwinska (Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland) describes those TRIM family members that facilitate cell stemness and discuss others for which further studies are needed to understand their full contribution to stem cell self‐renewal. For more information, see STEM CELLS now!
A new review article from the laboratory of Richard P. Davis (Leiden University Medical Center. Leiden, Netherlands) discusses how the combination of human induced pluripotent stem cells and genome editing offers a potential link in investigating the pathogenicity of primary genetic mutations affecting cardiac disease and also in determining the contribution of modifying variants. Van den Brink et al. believe that a more in-depth understanding should improve clinical decision‐making and advance the field toward making precision medicine a reality. For all the details, see STEM CELLS now!
Extrinsic cell signaling is transmitted through intracellular proteins that converge on gene transcription to steer cell fate and differentiation. The study of the roles of such top‐down pathways during development has historically employed single‐component perturbations with read‐out time points covering multiple developmental stages. A new study from the labs of Ruben Dries and Danny Huylebroeck (Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands) systematically profiled multiple components of the TGFβ/BMP pathway using time‐series, perturbations, and single‐cell analysis during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to neural progenitor cells (NPCs). The authors now advise that this pathway should be considered an intricate intra‐dependent network of individual components with considerable cell‐stage specificity. Hence, interpretation of the consequences of single‐gene perturbation or knockout in lineage‐progressing cells should occur with caution regarding stage and transition. For more on this concept, see STEM CELLS now!