A new review discusses concerns regarding organoids, the methods available for organoid formation, and the types of reported human organoid models
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Summaries of the most recent articles published in STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.
New mesenchymal stem cell-based approaches support the regeneration of high‐quality bone in a critical-size defect in a swine model
A new review examines the effect of culture‐adapted mesenchymal stem cells on macrophage polarization and their clinical utility
Researchers describe the development of a bioengineered platform enabling the systematic control of aggregate size and aggregation kinetics
Researchers highlights the development of in vitro cardiac tissue models towards a better understanding of cardiac function, pathology, and therapeutic responses
A non-invasive quality control technology for keratinocyte stem cells constructed by deep learning‐based cell recognition and Kalman filter algorithm‐based tracking
Researchers provide proof of principle for the pharmacological targeting of Müller glia to induce therapeutic regeneration in the mammalian retina
Researchers describe how harnessing decidual precursor cells may help to prevent pregnancy disorders such as miscarriages and preterm labor
A new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study from the lab of Yang Chai (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA) reveals a novel three‐dimensional (3D)‐printed hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate scaffold design and describes standardized loading dosages of dental pulp neural crest mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or bone marrow aspirate that support the regeneration of high‐quality bone in a critical-size defect in swine. Overall, Johnson et al. believe that this discovery may significantly impact bone regeneration beyond the craniofacial region and ultimately benefit patients who suffer from debilitating critical-size defects.
A new STEM CELLS concise review from Jacques Galipeau (University of Wisconsin in Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA) examines the relationship between culture‐adapted mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and macrophages as a cornerstone of the pharmaceutical effect in resolving inflammatory and tissue injury syndromes in vivo. The contribution of MSC‐borne chemokines (CCL2 in particular) and the recently recognized biological role of CC/CXC chemokine heterodimers found in the MSC secretome as potent immune modulation agents provide novel insights in identifying those cellular attributes of MSCs that are predictive of clinical response.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immense potential as vital components of therapies for immune and inflammatory diseases due to their capacity to secrete trophic and immunomodulatory factors. In a new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study, researchers led by William L. Murphy (University of Wisconsin‐Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA) describe the development of a bioengineered platform enabling the systematic control of aggregate size and aggregation kinetics. Xie et al. also report the use of the Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology to evaluate the effects of aggregation parameters on MSC immunomodulatory function. Overall, this represents the first study to identify aggregation kinetics as a critical factor affecting MSC‐mediated immunomodulation, and the strategy and findings described here may pave the way for more efficacious MSC therapies.
The integration of recent advances in stem cell biology, materials science, and engineering has accelerated research in cardiac tissue engineering towards the development of accurate functional three-dimensional cardiac microtissues from human cell sources. Said engineered cardiac tissues enable the screening of cardiotoxic drugs, allow the modeling of normal development and disease, and serve as novel drug development platforms. A new concise review in STEM CELLS from the laboratory of Sara S. Nunes Vasconcelos (Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, Ontario, Canada) now highlights recent advances in the development of in vitro cardiac tissue models towards a better understanding of cardiac function, pathology, and therapeutic responses.
In their new STEM CELLS article, researchers led by Jun'ichi Kotoku (Teikyo University) and Daisuke Nanba (Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan) report on the development of a novel non-invasive quality control technology for cultured human keratinocyte stem cells constructed by deep learning‐based automated cell recognition and Kalman filter algorithm‐based tracking. Hirose et al. describe how this deep learning‐based automated cell tracking (DeepACT) technology rapidly analyzed keratinocytes' motion and provided collective motion dynamics of cultured keratinocytes, which enabled the quantitative evaluation of keratinocyte dynamics in response to changes in culture conditions. Furthermore, DeepACT identified human keratinocyte stem cells, as the stem cell colonies exhibited a unique motion pattern.
The adult mammalian retina does not possess regenerative capacity, and the loss of specific neuronal types leads to irreversible blindness. Müller glia possess dormant stem cell properties and have been considered a target for therapeutic regeneration; however, they display low neurogenic potential. In a new STEM CELLS article, researchers led by Iqbal Ahmad (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA) demonstrate that small molecules (without the ectopic expression of transcription factors) reproducibly induced the neural potential of Müller glia. Overall, Xia et al. provide proof of principle for the pharmacological targeting of Müller glia to induce therapeutic regeneration in the mammalian retina.
The transformation of the cycling endometrium into the decidua of pregnancy requires extensive tissue remodeling, and perturbations to this process can lead to the breakdown of the maternal‐fetal interface and induce miscarriage. In a new STEM CELLS study, researchers led by Jan Brosens (University of Warwick, Coventry, UK) characterize decidual precursor cells during the window of implantation. Diniz‐da‐Costa et al. demonstrate the clonogenic nature of decidual precursors that exist in a state primed for exponential growth and reported that the cells likely originate from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Given the association of recurrent pregnancy loss with the loss of decidual precursor cells before conception, the harnessing of decidual precursor cells may help to prevent pregnancy disorders, including miscarriages and preterm labor.
The vascularization of brain organoids may help widen the use of brain organoids to fields in which they have not yet been applied, such as investigating neurovascular interactions on a human platform. To date, multiple studies have aimed to vascularize brain organoids by modifying in vitro culture and in vivo transplantation. In their recent STEM CELLS review article, Takeshi K. Matsui and Ken‐ichiro Kuwako (Shimane University School of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan) highlight those studies exploring the vascularization of human brain organoids and discuss the future use of microfluidic devices for in vitro vascularization of human brain organoids.
Radiotherapy combined with surgery to treat skeletal tumors usually leads to significant bone defects and hampers wound healing. Skeletal stem cells (SSCs) may form part of advanced bone regeneration strategies, while ferulic acid, a phytochemical with a wide range of therapeutic effects, can alleviate radiation‐induced oxidative stress and promote tissue regeneration. In a new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study, researchers led by Heng Zhu (Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine) and Li Ding (Air Force Medical Center, Beijing, China) report that ferulic acid alleviates radiation‐induced impairment of SSCs and promotes SSC‐mediated bone regeneration post-radiation both in vitro and in vivo.
A recent STEM CELLS review article from Foteini Tsouki and Anna Williams (University of Edinburgh, UK) summarizes our current knowledge regarding microglial involvement in the gray matter changes observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), given evidence implicating microglia in pathology, neuroprotection, and repair. Furthermore, the authors describe the ongoing development of potential therapeutic applications in MS that can harness microglia to protect and regenerate the central nervous system.