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Highlights of current exciting developments, ranging from research papers to court decisions to industry regulations

October 15, 2018

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Past Buzz

October 11,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Mouse ESC Heterogeneity, human MSC Immunosuppression, Leydig Stem Cell Autografting, and MSC Proangiogenic Efficacy!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Histone Acetyltransferase-mediated Regulation of Mouse ESCs Heterogeneity

While many studies have indicated a probable link between mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) fate decisions and increased transcriptional heterogeneity, we know little regarding the underlying controlling molecular mechanisms. Now, researchers led by Cristina Pina (University of Cambridge, UK) have established that inhibition of the Kat2a histone acetyltransferase leads to increased transcriptional heterogeneity in mESCs and an increased probability of exit from pluripotency. Overall, this STEM CELLS article links chromatin modification and transcriptional heterogeneity to cell fate decisions and highlights the importance of these links to a better understanding of development and disease.

Metabolism Underpins Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Immunosuppression

Recent research has highlighted the ability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to actively reconfigure their metabolism to boost tissue repair, although quite how hMSCs regulate their energy metabolism to support immunomodulation remains mostly unknown. Now, scientists from the lab of Teng Ma (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA) have demonstrated that hMSC immune polarization by interferon‐gamma (IFN‐γ) treatment leads to a remodeling of hMSC metabolic pathways toward glycolysis (required for the secretion of immunosuppressive factors) and highlighted the importance of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Overall, Liu et al. hope that their STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article now demonstrates the potential of altering hMSC metabolism to enhance their immunomodulatory properties and therapeutic efficacy in various diseases.

Subcutaneous Leydig Stem Cell Autografts for Testosterone Deficiency Treatment

Leydig stem cell (LSC) transplantation represents a possible alternative to the currently problematic exogenous testosterone therapies employed to treat testosterone deficiency; however, testicular injection of LSCs is not clinically feasible. Now, research led by Ranjith Ramasamy (University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA) and published in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine examined the feasibility of subcutaneously autografting LSCs in combination with Sertoli and myoid cells to increase testosterone levels. Excitingly, Arora et al. now demonstrate that this approach is safe and effective for men with low testosterone who desire fertility preservation; the authors suggest that this therapy may represent a paradigm shift in this area.

 

Biomarker of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Proangiogenic Efficacy

The clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of ischemic disease currently suffers from poor cell engraftment and inconsistent stem cell potency. However, exciting new research from the lab of Young Ae Joe (Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea) has now established efficient biomarkers for the prediction of vascular regenerative efficacy in the treatment of ischemic diseases. Kim et al. sought correlations between secretion profile of paracrine factors in vitro with in vivo pro-angiogenic activities and uncovered angiogenin, interleukin-8 (IL8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as important factors. For all the details on this exciting advance, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

October 7,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Fibrotic Liver Regeneration, Reviewing Tooth Initiation, Corneal SOX2 Expression via CRISPR, and Epigenetic Regulation of MSC Fate!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

A Novel Accelerator of Fibrotic Liver Regeneration

While Granulocyte‐colony stimulating factor (G‐CSF) can mobilize and enhance the proliferation of hepatic progenitor cells (HPC) to ameliorate impaired liver function, the exact mechanisms at play remain unknown. Now, researchers from the group of Yutaka Inagaki (Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan) have identified opioid growth factor receptor-like‐1 (OGFRL1) as a novel bone marrow cell‐derived accelerator of fibrotic liver regeneration in response to G‐CSF treatment. Yanagawa et al. hypothesize that the administration of cells overexpressing OGFRL1 may serve as a regenerative therapy for advanced liver fibrosis; discover more at STEM CELLS now!

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Tooth Initiation

A new review article from Anamaria Balic (University of Helsinki, Finland) aims to provide an overview of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that guide the initial stages of tooth development and outline potential obstacles. While studies have unraveled many layers of the molecular regulation of tooth development, regulation of the initial stages of tooth development, as well as the cellular mechanisms that govern tooth development, remain mostly unknown. See STEM CELLS for more.

SOX2 Activation Using CRISPR Activation

Human corneal endothelial cells (hCECs) do not regenerate, thereby representing a problem for those suffering from corneal endothelial diseases. For these reasons, esearchers from the lab of Young Joo Shin (Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea) set out circumnavigate this problem. Now, Chang et al. report that CRISPR activation mediated overexpression of SOX2 in the corneal endothelium of Sprague–Dawley rats promoted wound healing and regeneration. Does CRISPR activation hold the key to treating corneal endothelial disease? Head over to STEM CELLS now to discover more!

Ash1l Regulates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate Decision

Following the discovery that loss of the Ash1l histone methyltransferase can lead to arthritis with more severe cartilage and bone destruction, researchers from the lab of Ling Ye (Sichuan University, Chengdu, China) sought to document the function of Ash1l in skeletal formation. Reporting in STEM CELLS, Yin et al. now demonstrate a positive correlation between bone mass and the expression of Ash1l, with histone methyltransferase activity playing a significant role. The authors anticipate that their findings will prompt the development of new therapeutic strategies to promote osteogenesis.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

October 4,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - miRNA and Mammary Stem Cells, Enhanced MSC Immunosuppression, Endothelial MSC Plasticity, and hPSC Modelling of Beta-Cell Pathology!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Role of miR-205 in Mammary Stem Cells

A new study from the lab of Jeffrey M. Rosen (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA) recently highlighted an essential role for microRNA-mediated regulation of the stem cell self‐renewal and differentiation required for mammary gland development. Lu et al. discovered that deletion of miR-205 abrogated mammary stem cell self-renewal during mammary reconstitution and that negative regulators of YAP and WNT signaling represented novel miR-205 targets. For all the details, see STEM CELLS now!

Serum-Free Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Immunosuppressive Effects

A fascinating recent report out of the Ayumu Nakashima and Takao Masaki (Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan) lab has recently demonstrated that the serum present in culture medium can inhibit the immunosuppressive and antifibrotic abilities of in vitro expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and, therefore, hinder their clinical application. Yoshida et al. report in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine how serum-free growth conditions enhanced the ability of MSCs to induce an immunosuppressive M2 in macrophages and promoted the amelioration of renal fibrosis when compared MSCs cultured in serum‐containing conditions. Overall, this study promotes the use of serum‐free culture medium for the culture of clinically applied MSCs.

Endothelial Plasticity of Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

While many hope that adipose‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) may represent endothelial cell substitutes for the vascularization of tissue‐engineered constructs, new research from the lab of J. Paul Santerre (University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada) may have now dashed this line of research. Antonyshyn et al. now report that ASCs present with a “strikingly limited” endothelial differentiation potential even though differentiating ASCs upregulated the expression of endothelial genes and proteins. Will this study end the endothelial promise of ASCs? Head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine to discover more!

Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Modelling of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Pathology

Finally, a new review article from the lab of Timo Otonkoski (University of Helsinki, Finland) aims to summarize current progress in modeling diabetes with human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Balboa et al. discuss the current challenges and opportunities of these approaches to dissect pancreatic beta‐cell pathology and devise new pharmacological and cell replacement therapies. For a tremendous sounding read, STEM CELLS has you covered!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

October 1,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Meibomian Biomarkers, Wildlife Conservation, Non-Responders to Cell-Based Therapies, MFAT Secretory Activity, and MSC Therapy for Heart Disease!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Biomarkers in Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

The holocrine secretion of meibum from the Meibomian glands (MG) prevents the evaporation of the eye's tear film, and this secretory mode entails the destruction of MG acinar epithelial cells and therefore, the presence of a progenitor cell that permits cell renewal. Now, researchers from the lab of Yang Liu (Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA) report Lrig1 as an MG progenitor biomarker and DNase2 as a differentiated MG cell biomarker. Xie et al. hope that this new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study aid clinical efforts to restore MG function and to regenerate MGs after a disease‐induced loss.

Wildlife Conservation from a Different Perspective

A fascinating new concise review from the labs of Morgan M. Stanton (VitroLabs Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA) and Dusko Ilic (King's College London, United Kingdom) focuses on research utilizing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in wildlife conservation and animal welfare, summarizing past and future avenues, and discussing benefits and limitations. This STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article discusses the use of iPSCs in the preservation of endangered animals, the reanimation of extinct species, and in laboratory-grown animal products, which would do no or little harm to animals but would provide unorthodox options for creating meat, leather, and fur.

Perspective - Cell-Based Therapies: The Non-responder

A new Perspective piece from Arnold I. Caplan (Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA) explores the consequences of “non-responders” to cell‐based therapies, such as those involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). “Cell‐based therapies, like those using MSCs, also have a substantial non‐responder group which can be as high as 60% of the patients. This is, in part, due to two issues: the fact that the medicinal cell preparation is not optimized for the disease state being treated, and because we lack an understanding of the responsiveness of patients to these cells has. The “tuning” of cells for therapeutic use represents the next technical challenge for cell‐based therapies. In the interim, this expected non‐responder group could be used instead of placebos to represent the base or floor of the clinical response.” For another fascinating read, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

The Tissue Secretory Activity of Microfragmented Adipose Tissue

Autologous microfragmented adipose tissue, MFAT, represents a minimally manipulated cell product that displays regenerative potential; but what exactly is behind this capacity? Recent research from Bruno Péault (UCLA, USA/MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Edinburgh, UK) published in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine hoped to reveal all! Vezzani et al. now report that the MFAT comprises a mixture of cells enriched for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)/pericytes and secretes heightened levels of growth factors and cytokines involved in tissue repair and regeneration, noticeably via angiogenesis when compared to isogenic enzymatically processed lipoaspirates.

Systematic Review of MSC Therapy for Heart Disease

To create a fuller understanding of the safety profile and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in treating both acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischemic heart failure (IHF), researchers led by Manoj Lalu (Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ontario, Canada) conducted a systematic review of clinical trials. For all the details see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine. However, the results of this review are clear: there is a distinct need for well‐designed adequately/powered randomized control trials (with rigorous adverse event reporting and evaluations of cardiac function) to establish a clear risk‐benefit profile of MSCs.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 24,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Long-Term Myoblast Engraftment, PSC Transplantation Quality Control, hNPC Secretome for PD Treatment, and Cord Blood Stem Cells in RDEB!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Long-Term Myoblast Engraftment in the Infarcted Heart

A new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article from Philippe Menasché (Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France) reports the case of a patient who underwent myoblast injections in an infarct area 16 years before a referral for heart transplantation. Crahès et al. describe how pathological examination of the explanted heart uncovered persisting myotubes embedded in fibrosis, thereby supporting the ability of myoblasts to survive in harsh environments. The authors suggest that this makes myoblasts appealing candidates for transplantation in diseases requiring a supply of myogenic cells, such as muscular dystrophies or sphincter incontinence.

Quality Control for ESC and iPSC Transplantations

A recent review from the lab of Heidrun Holland (University Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany) tackles the requirement of appropriate quality control guidelines following the recent reports of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)‐based transplants. Rohani et al. recommend a range of standards that will maximize patient safety when preparing embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells for human transplantation. For a breakdown of all of these recommendations, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

The Secretome of Human Neural Progenitor Cells for Parkinson’s Disease Repair

While cell replacement therapy using human neural stem cells (hNSCs) transplantation represents a major treatment option for Parkinson’s Disease (PD), hNSC-secreted factors, or the secretome, may also play a role in treating other neurodegenerative diseases. Now, research led by António J. Salgado (University of Minho, Braga, Portugal) indicates that injections of hNPC secretome in a 6‐hydroxydopamine (6‐OHDA) rat model of PD potentiated the histological recovery of DA neurons and supported the functional motor amelioration when compared to hNPC transplantation alone. Mendes‐Pinheiro et al. conclude that the secretome could represent a route for novel therapeutic options for PD regenerative medicine; discover more in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

Effects of Cord Blood Stem Cells in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa

Mutations in the Col7a1 gene cause the severe skin fragility disorder recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), which can lead to the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Now, research from the labs of Yanling Liao and Mitchell S. Cairo (New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA) demonstrate how the treatment of an RDEB mouse model with human cord blood‐derived unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) can suppress TGFβ signaling‐mediated fibrosis. Liao et al. went on to demonstrate that stem cell treatment also decreases dermal expression of MMP‐9 and ‐13 and increasing anti‐fibrotic TGFβ3 and decorin, and suggest USSCs as a potent means to inhibit inflammation, fibrosis, and also epithelial malignancy. See STEM CELLS now all the fine print.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 17,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Heart-derived Cell Therapies, MSC-Seeded Scaffolds, Amniotic Stem Cells in Corneal Repair, and Profiling Hepatocyte Generation!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Next Generation Heart-derived Cell Therapies

Ex vivo proliferated heart‐derived cell products have emerged as a promising therapy for the ever-rising incidence of heart failure. A new Concise Review published in STEM CELLS focuses on the paracrine repertoire of heart‐derived cells and outlines the strategies employed to boost cell potency by targeting cytokines, metabolic preconditioning, and supportive biomaterials. The authors, from the laboratories of Ghazaleh Rafatian and Darryl R Davis (University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ontario, Canada), hope that mechanistic insights from related studies will shape future efforts to apply defined factors and/or synthetic cell approaches to aid the millions of patients worldwide suffering from heart failure.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Seeded Scaffolds for RANKL Delivery

Researchers from the lab of Cristina Sobacchi (Humanitas Clinical and Research Institute, Rozzano, Italy) recently sought to develop a cell‐based therapy for RANKL‐deficient autosomal recessive osteopetrosis, a rare skeletal genetic disease in which the lack of RANKL, an essential osteoclastogenic factor, impedes osteoclast formation. Menale et al. report that RANKL‐releasing mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)‐seeded biomimetic constructs implanted subcutaneously in Rankl−/− mice can serve as a source of the missing cytokine. This strategy restored the formation of TRAP+ cells in bone, thereby providing proof of principle of the capacity of this approach to support cell differentiation towards the osteoclast lineage in vivo. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine for the original study and see the Stem Cells Portal for the associated press release!

Amniotic Membrane Stem Cells in Corneal Repair

Ocular transplantation of stem cells represents an exciting means to promote repair following the acute ocular burns and the subsequent exacerbated innate immune response. The ease of access of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic membrane (hAM-MSCs) coupled with their ability to inhibit inflammation and fibrosis led researchers from the lab of Yonathan Garfias (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico) to assess their therapeutic relevance in a corneal alkali‐burn model. In STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, Navas et al. report that hAM‐MSC injection into the eye cavity induces an anti‐inflammatory and anti‐fibrotic environment that promotes corneal wound healing. Great news!

Single-Cell RNA-Seq Profile Hepatocyte Generation

A fascinating new study from the laboratories of Armand Keating, Xiaodong Su, and Robert Chunhua Zhao recently described the isolation of adult multipotent adipose‐derived stem cells (M‐ADSCs), a new type of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). Li et al. report on the efficient induction of hepatocyte-like cells from these newly described M‐ADSCs via a four‐step non-viral system and a single‐cell RNA‐seq-based investigation into the crucial stages in this conversion. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now to discover this new means to generate large numbers of transplantable hepatocytes!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 9,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - EPC Migration and Angiogenesis, Airway Stem Cell Differentiation, iPSC Blood-Brain Barrier Model, and GBM Stemness and Chemosensitivity!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

LncRNA Promotes Endothelial Progenitor Cell Migration and Angiogenesis

Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) recruitment and angiogenesis represent essential steps in the production of a thrombus intended to inhibit bleeding; however, what regulates these processes remains relatively unknown. Now, research from the labs of Xiao‐Qiang Li (Nanjing University Medical School, Jiangsu) and Wen‐Bin Wang (The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China) suggests that the WTAPP1 long noncoding (lnc)RNA positively regulates migration, invasion, and in vitro and in vivo tube formation in EPCs by increasing MMP‐1 expression and activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. See STEM CELLS for all the details.

Airway Stem Cell Differentiation

Previous studies from the laboratory of Susan D. Reynolds (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA) demonstrated that genetic stabilization of β‐catenin inhibited differentiation of mouse bronchiolar tissue stem cells. Now, in a new STEM CELLS study, Malleske et al. report that activation of β‐catenin dependent signaling in chronic lung disease leads to changes in mucus and ciliated cell frequency and that β‐catenin co‐factors P300 and CBP tune the β‐catenin signal to favor mucus cell differentiation. Sounds like a great read!

Human iPSC-derived Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier

Human cell-based models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may aid our understanding of BBB formation and degradation and the consequences of brain exposure to various drugs. To this end, researchers in the lab of Louise Delsing (University of Skövde, Sweden) employed human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to generate a human model of the BBB that includes endothelial cells in co‐culture with pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons. Overall, this new STEM CELLS study suggests that co‐culture of iPSC‐derived endothelial cells promotes barrier formation on a functional and transcriptional level.

BRG1 Regulates Glioblastoma Multiforme Stemness and Chemosensitivity

Therapies that target cancer stem cells (CSCs) present in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly aggressive and malignant brain tumor refractory to existing therapeutic regimens, may represent an exciting therapeutic strategy. New research from the lab of Lawrence M. Pfeffer (University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA) now identifies the BRG1 catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex as a critical regulator of glial CSC stemness and chemosensitivity and a potentially druggable target. For more, head over to STEM CELLS post-haste!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 6,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Better Transplants, EPC-treatment for Stroke, Marking Quiescent LSCs, and TLR-microRNA Interplay in MSCs!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Cheating Death for a Better Transplant

An intriguingly titled article from the lab of Miriam Erlacher (University Medical Center of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany) discusses the circumstances that limit the success of transplantation as well as potential clinical approaches to attenuate donor stem cell death during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Specifically, Afreen et al. discuss the role of anti-apoptotic BCL‐2 proteins in the context of factors that negatively affect donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fitness and viability during HSCT and suggest approaches to improve graft quality and transplantation procedures with an emphasis on the inhibition of BCL‐2 regulated apoptosis. See STEM CELLS now for a fascinating read!

Endothelial Progenitor Cell Transplantation for Acute Ischemic Stroke

While the transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) represents a safe and effective method for the treatment of cerebral ischemia in animal experiments, safety and efficacy in human patients still need to be determined. To this end, a two‐center, randomized, placebo‐controlled phase I/IIa trial with blinded outcome assessment on 18 patients with acute cerebral infarct within the middle cerebral artery territory with a four year follow up has now been reported in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine. This new study, led by Zhenzhou Chen and Xiaodan Jiang (Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, PR China), establish long‐term safety, thereby supporting the feasibility of this novel method for treatment of ischemic stroke.

CD200: a Putative Marker of Quiescent LSCs

One of the main challenges in limbal stem cell (LSC) biology and transplantation is the lack of definitive cell surface markers; however, a new study led by Majlinda Lako (Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK) now proposes CD200 as a novel LSC marker. Bojic et al. report that CD200 expression marks a quiescent population of LSCs with holoclone forming potential while CD109 expression marks a proliferative progenitor phenotype. The authors anticipate that these new findings, reported in STEM CELLS, will aid further advances in this field.

Toll‐like receptor-microRNA Interplay in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Finally, researchers from the lab of Armand Keating (University Health Network, Toronto, Canada) review how an miRNA‐Toll‐like receptor (TLR) pathway axis regulates the immunomodulatory functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including their interactions with monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells, and discuss the therapeutic implications for MSC‐based therapies. For all the details on a fascinating review article, head over to STEM CELLS right now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 3,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - MSCs for Intraventricular Hemorrhage, MSC Migration to Injured Lung, NSC-mediated Cancer Therapies, and iPSC Reprogramming Efficiency!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Neonatal Intraventricular Hemorrhage

Previous studies from the lab of Won Soon Park (Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea) discovered that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improved recovery from brain injury induced by severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in newborn rats. In a new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study, Ahn et al. now reports that intraventricular transplantation of allogeneic human umbilical cord‐derived MSCs into preterm human infant patients with severe IVH represents a safe and feasible approach. The authors hope that the positive results of this encouraging phase I dose‐escalation clinical trial will lead to a more extensive, and controlled, phase II study.

AT2R Overexpression Increases MSC Migration to the Injured Lung

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based treatment of patients suffering from acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents an exciting therapeutic approach but suffers from a lack of MSC migration to the injured lung. Now, researchers led by Hai‐Bo Qiu (Southeast University, Nanjing, PR China) have established that the overexpression of the Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) increases MSC migration to the injured lung in ALI mice and could boost the therapeutic effect of administered MSCs. For all the details, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

 

Neural Stem Cell-mediated Cancer Therapies: A Review

A new article from the laboratory of Karen S. Aboody (Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, California, USA) provides a timely review of the tumor tropism characteristics of neural stem cells (NSCs) and their application as therapeutic vehicles in cancer therapy. Furthermore, Mooney et al. detail novel therapeutic strategies and the probable future direction of stem cell‐mediated cancer therapy. Strategies such as this hope to promote tumor specificity and efficacy of anti-cancer approaches while preventing undesirable side effects; see all the fine print over at STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

Factors Influencing iPSC Reprogramming Efficiency

A new study from the lab of Trevor K. Archer (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NC, USA) sought to examine the influence of various parameters on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming via the creation of a massive sex- and ancestry-balanced cohort of primary dermal fibroblast and derived-iPSCs. Reporting in STEM CELLS, Mackey et al. demonstrate that components of the SWI/SNF family of epigenetic enzymes, donor age, and donor ancestry all correlated with the proficient generation of iPSCs. Furthermore, the authors anticipate that their cohort of iPSCs from eighty healthy human donors will allow for the creation of sophisticated cell-based models for the mechanism of action studies, pharmaceutical development, and toxicity assessments.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

August 22,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - NPCs for Spinal Cord Injury, Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell-based Therapy, Leukemia Stem Cell Candidate Marker, and a Stem Cell Trial for Rheumatoid Arthritis!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Oligodendrogenic NPCs for Spinal Cord Injury

To boost the production of mature oligodendrocytes for spinal cord injury treatment, researchers from the lab of Michael G. Fehlings (University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada) recently described the production of oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (oNPCs) from directly reprogrammed human NPCs (drNPCs). Nagoshi et al. demonstrate how oNPC transplantation promoted peri-lesional tissue sparing and axonal remyelination, resulting in motor function recovery in model mice. Furthermore, this exciting study observed no evidence of tumor formation; head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for all the details.

Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells for Treatment of the Fetus and Neonate

A new Perspective article from Shaun M. Kunisaki (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA) provides a pediatric surgeon-scientists perspective on the therapeutic potential of amniotic fluid‐derived stem cells in the management of a wide range of structural birth defects affecting the fetus and neonate. In STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, the author discusses the characteristics of amniotic fluid‐derived stem cells in experimental animal models of congenital anomalies and reviews barriers to the clinical translation of amniotic fluid stem cells as a potential adjunct to surgical treatment in children.

c-MPL is a Candidate Surface Marker of Leukemia Stem Cells

New research from the labs of Qing Rao and Jianxiang Wang (Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences/Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, P. R. China) suggests that c‐MPL is a candidate leukemia stem cells (LSC) surface marker that may represent a therapeutic target for the elimination of LSCs. Li et al. report that c‐MPL‐positive cells included a high percentage of cells in a quiescent state with enhanced colony formation ability, increased homing efficiency, and higher leukemia initiation capability. See STEM CELLS now to see how c‐MPL may serve as a therapeutic target for the elimination of LSCs.

Stem Cell Infusion for Rheumatoid Arthritis

A new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine report brings us the results of a phase I trial of human umbilical cord blood‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB‐MSCs) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) led by Kichul Shin (SMG‐SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea). Park et al. establish that a single fusion of hUCB‐MSCs reduced the mean 28‐joint disease activity score of the study participants without any deleterious side effects in the short term. The authors hope that data from this trial will provide insight for future trials assessing safety plus clinical efficacy.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!