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Article Scans

Brief reviews of recently published articles, organized by stem cell type.

February 15, 2013 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

"Facilitators and Impediments of the Pluripotency Reprogramming Factors' Initial Engagement with the Genome"

Each passing month brings more in depth analysis of the mechanisms lying behind the induction of pluripotency from somatic cells. We currently know that only a small percentage of cells become reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (Plath and...

February 15, 2013 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

"SMAD7 Directly Converts Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Telencephalic Fate by a Default Mechanism"

Neural induction (Spermann and Mangold) is generally understood to be controlled through the inhibition of transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling. Signalling is controlled through ligand-dependent dimerization and activation of type I and type II serine-threonine...

February 15, 2013 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

"Gata4 Blocks Somatic Cell Reprogramming By Directly Repressing Nanog"

Slowly but surely, the processes which take place during induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation are being uncovered, allowing a deeper understanding of the process while allowing researchers to streamline techniques with which to make fully reprogrammed pluripotent cells. Gata4 is a...

February 15, 2013 | Cancer Stem Cells

"Effective Elimination of Cancer Stem Cells By a Novel Drug Combination Strategy"

Effective means to target cancer stem cells (CSCs) using pharmaceutical agents have been hindered by their seemingly intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents (Gilbert and Ross). CSCs in Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have been shown to be resistant to common chemotherapeutics and...

February 14, 2013 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

"Negligible immunogenicity of terminally differentiated cells derived from induced pluripotent or embryonic stem cells"

The main advantage of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) over embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is their ability to provide a patient-specific source of cells for tissue replacement. However, it was feared that incomplete reprogramming, any mutations...

February 14, 2013 | Cardiac Stem Cells

"Mammalian heart renewal by pre-existing cardiomyocytes"

Controversy reigns in the area of adult heart cell regeneration. Until recently it was thought there was no adult regenerative capacity, but even though this dogma has now been abolished, the rate at which it occurs and the source of this de novo regeneration is still debated. Some studies suggest that there...

January 21, 2013 | Cancer Stem Cells

"LGR5-Positive Colon Cancer Stem Cells Interconvert with Drug-Resistant LGR5-Negative cells and are Capable of Tumor Reconstitution"

The existence of a cancer stem cell (CSC) in tumours has been explored thoroughly in recent years, and while evidence mounts in favour of its existence, the debate is far from over (Magee et al., Nguyen et al. and Visvader and Lindeman)...

January 21, 2013 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

"A Practical and Efficient Cellular Substrate for the Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Adults: Blood-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells"

An ideal source of cells for the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been investigated thoroughly since the inception of this technology, but to this day no cell type has been deemed...

January 21, 2013 | Amniotic Stem Cells

"Bioprinted Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells Accelerate Healing of Large Skin Wounds"

Current therapies for skin injuries such a serious burns rely on autologous skin grafts; a therapy which is limiting with regards to the number and size of donor sites, allografts; which suffer from the problem of immune rejection, the more recently developed non-cellular dermal...

January 21, 2013 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

"Cartilage tissue engineering using differentiated and purified induced pluripotent stem cells"

Cartilage tissue engineering hopes to provide replacement tissues, but many problems have arisen during progress in this area. A good source of cells is lacking; as autologous chondrocytes, although useful, require surgical procedures which can lead to problems at the donor...