Body: Researchers have determined a novel mechanism linking the metabolism of ribonucleic acids, RNA, to the development of leukemia in myelodysplastic syndrome patients, MDS. They explain what makes hematopoietic stem cells acquire malignant traits in cancer.
Body: A condition called CD3 delta SCID is caused by a mutation in the CD3D gene, which prevents the production of the CD3 delta protein that is needed for the normal development of T cells from blood stem cells. Researchers showed that a new genome editing technique called base editing can correct the mutation that causes CD3 delta SCID in blood stem cells and restore their ability to produce T cells. Base editing is an ultraprecise form of genome editing that enables scientists to correct single-letter mutations in DNA.
Body: Genes long known to control the formation of bones before birth also control bone healing later in life, a new study found.
Body: The ability of a cell to divide, to proliferate, is essential for life and gives rise to the formation of complex organisms from a single cell. It also allows the replacement of used cells from a limited number of 'stem' cells, which then proliferate and specialize. In cancer, however, cell proliferation is no longer controlled and becomes chaotic. Researchers have discovered that, in a healthy individual, certain blood immune cells, the monocytes, also have this ability to proliferate, with the aim to replace tissue macrophages, which are essential for the proper functioning of our body.
Body: Researchers shed light on the neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) microenvironment during development. Neurosphere formation from embryonic mouse forebrain NSPCs was significantly increased under low oxygen conditions, and VEGF-A was identified as a factor released by NSPCs to contribute to this effect. This study demonstrates that NSPCs appear to maintain their own niche and population under low oxygen conditions during development.
Body: The skeleton, tendons, and glands of a functional jaw all derive from the same population of stem cells, which arise from a cell population known as neural crest. To discover how these neural crest-derived cells know to make the right type of cell in the right location, researchers focused on a particular gene, Nr5a2, that was active in a region of the face that makes tendons and glands, but not skeleton. To understand the role of Nr5a2, the scientists created zebrafish lacking this gene. These mutant zebrafish generated excess cartilage and were missing tendons in their jaws.
Body: Researchers have identified a new therapeutic target that could lead to more effective treatment of glaucoma.
Body: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is one of the deadliest birth defects. To better understand and treat this condition in the future, researchers designed a new cell model in the laboratory and tested a drug therapy on it.
Body: A dissolvable plug delivered stem cell therapy with few side effects in patients with single tract perianal fistulas, researchers discovered.
Body: Some areas of the adult brain contain quiescent, or dormant, neural stem cells that can potentially be reactivated to form new neurons. However, the transition from quiescence to proliferation is still poorly understood. A team has discovered the importance of cell metabolism in this process and identified how to wake up these neural stem cells and reactivate them. Biologists succeeded in increasing the number of new neurons in the brain of adult and even elderly mice.