Body: A group of scientists has now demonstrated the presence of precursors of the placenta and the amniotic sac in synthetic embryos they created from mouse stem cells.
Body: Using a new single-cell technique, researchers have uncovered a way to understand the programming behind how stem cells make particular cell types. The research uncovered new genes that program stem cells to make the dendritic cells that kick-start the immune response. By uncovering this process, the researchers hope they will be able to find new immunotherapy treatments for cancer, and plan to expand this technique in other areas such as discovering new drug targets.
Body: A research team has uncovered a new technique that can speed up recovery from bone replacements. Novel micropillars, 10 times smaller than the width of a human hair, can change the size, shape and nucleus of individual stem cells and 'trick' them to become bone. Further research will look to improve the process of locking bone replacements with reduced risk of infection.
Body: Pioneering research led has provided new insight into formation of the human embryo.
Body: Biomedical scientists have developed a new RNA-sequencing method -- 'Panoramic RNA Display by Overcoming RNA Modification Aborted Sequencing,' or PANDORA-seq -- that can help discover numerous modified small RNAs that were previously undetectable.
Body: Researchers have identified the biological mechanism of how chronic stress leads to hair loss. They found that the stress hormone corticosterone causes hair follicle stem cells to stay in an extended resting phase, without regenerating tissue. The stress signal was first received by dermal cells surrounding the hair follicle, preventing them from releasing Gas6, a molecule that activates stem cells. When researchers added back Gas6, stem cells could regenerate hair even under stress.
Body: Researchers have identified a gene that plays a crucial role in regenerating neurons of African clawed frog tadpoles, which has an unusually high capacity for nerve regeneration. Their study showed that introducing the gene into mice with spinal cord injury (SCI) led to a partial recovery of their lost motor functions.
Body: Researchers have developed a new way of using nanomaterials to identify and enrich skeletal stem cells -- a discovery which could eventually lead to new treatments for major bone fractures and the repair of lost or damaged bone.
Body: A research team has identified a chemical cocktail that enables the production of large numbers of muscle stem cells, which can self-renew and give rise to all types of skeletal muscle cells.
Body: By studying how different pluripotent stem cell lines build muscle, researchers have for the first time discovered how epigenetic mechanisms can be triggered to accelerate muscle cell growth, providing new insights for developing therapies for muscle disease, injury and atrophy.