Body: Researchers have found a vital mechanism, previously thought to have disappeared as mammals evolved, that helps protect mammalian stem cells from RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and Zika virus. The scientists suggest this could one day be exploited in the development of new antiviral treatments.
Body: Muscles and the resident stem cells (satellite cells) responsible for muscle regeneration retain memory of their location in the body. This positional memory was found to be based on the expression pattern of the homeobox (Hox) gene cluster, which is responsible for shaping the body during fetal life. These findings are expected to provide clues to elucidate the pathogenesis of muscle diseases like muscular dystrophy, and help develop regenerative treatments based on positional memory.
Body: Researchers found that the main gene that causes Rett syndrome, MeCP2, controls the differentiation pattern of neural stem cells through the microRNA miR-199a. Dysfunction in MeCP2 or miR-199a cause neural stem cells to produce more astrocytes than neurons. Furthermore, the researchers found that miR-199a mediates the production of Smad1, a downstream transcription factor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling.
Body: Using an experimental model to simulate the blood-brain barrier, scientists reported in unprecedented detail how antioxidants protect the brain from inflammation caused by such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
Body: New advances in stem cell research will help scientists battle diseases, develop drugs and, eventually, grow organs for transplant.
Body: Scientists have discovered stem cells of the hematopoietic system in glioblastomas, the most aggressive form of brain tumor. These hematopoietic stem cells promote division of the cancer cells and at the same time suppress the immune response against the tumor. This surprising discovery might open up new possibilities for developing more effective immunotherapies against these malignant brain tumors.
Body: Biomedical engineering researchers developed a new cell classifier tool that takes a higher-resolution look at the life cycle of neuroepithelial stem cells, which led to the discovery and exploration of a new resting phase called Neural G0. This knowledge could help scientists to better understand glioma brain tumors and develop new methods of treatment.
Body: Scientists revise the current textbook knowledge about gastrulation, the formation of the basic body plan during embryonic development. Their study in mice has implications for cell replacement strategies and cancer research.
Body: A groundbreaking study found that stem cells reduce the amount of virus causing AIDS, boost the body's antiviral immunity, and restore the gut's lymphoid follicles damaged by HIV. It provided a roadmap for multi-pronged HIV eradication strategies.
Body: Researchers have designed a deep learning-based system that accurately identifies individual skin stem cells grown under artificial conditions and tracks their motion. Using this system to perform quality control of stem cell cultures could improve the speed and efficiency of growing skin grafts for use in regenerative medicine and may also be useful for other types of stem cell cultures.