Body: Researchers say it can take cells in different forms or 'life stages' to cause cancer to grow and spread.
Body: Researchers investigated how intestinal stem cells are controlled at the molecular level to remain stem cells or to develop into one of various intestinal cells. By studying mice lacking the protein IRF2, the researchers found a blunted regenerative response and an increased development of immature Paneth cells upon intestinal inflammation and infection. These findings help clarify the molecular biology of intestinal stem cells.
Body: Researchers find that mitochondria regulate a key event during brain development: how neural stem cells become nerve cells. Mitochondria influence this cell fate switch during a precise period that is twice as long in humans compared to mice. This highlights an unexpected function for mitochondria that may help explain how humans developed a bigger brain during evolution, and how mitochondrial defects lead to neurodevelopmental diseases.
Body: Researchers report successfully implanting specialized grafts of neural stem cells directly into spinal cord injuries in mice, then documenting how the grafts grew and filled the injury sites, mimicking the animals' existing neuronal network.
Body: Scientists have used a gene editing technique to establish a novel mouse model of permanent neonatal diabetes -- the immune-deficient Kuma mutant mice with a specific deletion in the Insulin2 (Ins2) gene. This model is expected to be useful for studying the mechanisms governing insulin-producing cell dysfunctions in the pancreas as well as for evaluating human stem-cell derived or interspecies-derived insulin-producing cell transplantation.
Body: Researchers have for the first time identified stem cells in the region of the optic nerve, which transmits signals from the eye to the brain. The finding presents a new theory on why the most common form of glaucoma may develop and provides potential to treat a leading cause of blindness.
Body: Researchers have identified the process by which stem cells in the airways of the lungs switch between two distinct phases -- creating more of themselves and producing mature airway cells -- to regenerate lung tissue after an injury.
Body: The self-eating process in embryonic stem cells known as chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and a related metabolite may serve as promising new therapeutic targets to repair or regenerate damaged cells and organs, researchers show.
Body: Scientists have identified an unusual cell state that emerges early in tumor evolution and supports a cancer's ability to outwit chemotherapy.
Body: A mouse model of glioblastoma, an aggressive type of cancer that can occur in the brain, suggests that this recalcitrant cancer originates from a pool of stem cells that can be a significant distance away from the resulting tumors. The findings of a new study suggest new ways to fight this deadly disease.