Body: Many patients with heart disease face limited treatment options. Fortunately, stem cell biology has enabled researchers to produce large numbers of cardiomyocytes, which may be used in drug screens and cell-based therapies. However, current image analysis techniques don't allow researchers to analyze heterogeneous, multidirectional, striated myofibrils typical of immature cells. Researchers showcase an algorithm that combines gradient methods with fast Fourier transforms to quantify myofibril structures in heart cells.
Body: Research has given new insight into the cause of mutations in pluripotent stem cells and potential ways of stopping these mutations from occurring.
Body: Unlike humans and other mammals, the skeletons of sharks, skates, and rays are made entirely of cartilage and they continue to grow that cartilage throughout adulthood. New research finds that adult skates go one step further than cartilage growth: They can also spontaneously repair injured cartilage. This is the first known example of adult cartilage repair in a research organism. The team also found that newly healed skate cartilage did not form scar tissue.
Body: Scientists have demonstrated the promise of applying magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict the efficacy of using human neural stem cells to treat a brain injury -- a first-ever 'biomarker' for regenerative medicine that could help personalize stem cell treatments for neurological disorders and improve efficacy.
Body: Researchers have developed a first-of-its-kind roadmap of how human skeletal muscle develops, including the formation of muscle stem cells.
Body: Hematopoietic stem cells from a healthy donor can help patients suffering from acute leukemia. However, the side effects of therapies are often severe. Researchers have now shown how human healthy and cancerous hematopoietic stem cells can be more selectively eliminated using immunotherapy instead of chemotherapy in mice. The aim is to test the new immunotherapy in humans as soon as possible.
Body: Mutations in white blood cells can contribute to abnormal immune profile after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Body: Researchers determined which cells are involved in Krabbe disease and by which mechanism. They discovered that both myelin-forming cells, or Schwann cells, and macrophages require the GALC enzyme, which is missing in Krabbe patients due to genetic mutation.
Body: Researchers have developed an improved pluripotent stem cell differentiation protocol to generate beta cells in vitro with superior glucose response and insulin secretion -- a major step towards beta cell replacement therapy.
Body: Researchers have used induced pluripotent stem cells produced from the skin of a patient with a rare, genetic form of insulin-dependent diabetes, transformed the stem cells into insulin-producing cells, used the CRISPR gene-editing tool to correct a defect that caused the diabetes, and implanted the cells into mice to reverse diabetes in the animals.