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What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Inter‐species MSC Incompatibility, Promoting Hippocampal Neurogenesis, HIF‐1α Stability and Chondrogenesis, and p70S6 Kinase-1 in MSCs!

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The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Inter‐species Incompatibilities Limit Mesenchymal Stem Cell Efficacy

Pro-inflammatory stimuli “license” the immunomodulatory abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) before they can be employed to treat inflammatory diseases and in transplantation. Interestingly, researchers from the lab of Thomas Ritter (National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland) now report that a rat pro‐inflammatory environment cannot “license” human MSCs, causing a failure of human cells to modulate T‐cell activity in vitro and corneal allograft rejection in vivo. Overall, Lohan et al. highlight the potential for ‘false negative’ results in pre‐clinical experiments utilizing xenogeneic cells. See STEM CELLS now for all the details.

Promoting Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Cognitive Ability of Adult Mice

A new study from the lab of Linyin Feng (University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China) has sought to manipulate neural stem cells (NSCs) and enhance endogenous neurogenesis in the adult. Hui et al. now report that a novel small molecular compound, Yhhu‐3792, expands the NSC pool, promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and elevates the cognitive ability of adult mice. Therefore, the authors suggest that Yhhu‐3792 could represent a novel drug candidate for the treatment of hippocampus associated cognitive dysfunction in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. For more information, see the full paper over at STEM CELLS.

HIF‐1α‐stabilizing agents for MSC Chondrogenesis

Hypoxic regulation controls the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and so, researchers from the lab of Eileen Gentleman (King's College London, UK) sought to investigate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizing compounds as a means to enhance cartilage formation. Taheem et al. demonstrate that the 2‐oxoglutarate analog DMOG induces HIF signaling and an articular chondrocyte‐like expression profile in human BM‐MSC when compared to compounds that reduce Fe2+ bioavailability (CoCl2 or DFX). For all the fine print, head over to STEM CELLS now!

p70S6 Kinase-1 in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

New research from the laboratory of Katsuyuki Takeda (National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado, USA) set out to study the roles of all‐trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in lung tissue regeneration in animal models of emphysema. Interestingly, this new study highlights a role for p70S6K1 signaling pathway activation in lung repair by MSCs and, therefore, upregulation of this pathway in MSCs may provide therapeutic benefits in the treatment of damaged lung tissue such as emphysema. For more details, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!