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What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? – Hepatic Differentiation, Repairing CNS Damage, Enhancing HSC Engraftment, and SSCs for Osteoporosis Treatment!

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The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Commitment to Hepatic Differentiation via the TCF7L2-PGC1g Axis

Numerous studies have evidenced a link between mitochondrial activity and stem cell fate. In a new STEM CELLS study, the lab of Patricia Renard (University of Namur, Belgium) identifies a novel transcriptional regulatory axis coupling the loss of pluripotency and hepatic differentiation to the initiation of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolic shift. This new axis involves Transcription Factor 7 Like 2 (TCF7L2 - a downstream effector of the Wnt/b‐catenin pathway, repressed during differentiation) and PPARg coactivator 1a (PGC1α - the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, induced during differentiation).

 

SVF Cells Repair CNS Damage via Alternatively Activated Macrophages

Recent studies from the lab of Bruce A. Bunnell (Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, USA) discovered that adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells led to functional, immunological, and pathological improvements in a mouse multiple sclerosis model. Now, Bowles et al demonstrate that SVF cells induce regulatory T cells and alternatively activated macrophages and this helped to reduce cellular infiltrates and attenuate neuroinflammation in central nervous system (CNS) tissues to promote repair. See STEM CELLS for all the details.

Specific in vitro Expansion Conditions Enhance HSC Engraftment in vivo

The necessary ex vivo culture and amplification of adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) can lead to the loss of engraftment and function. Now, the lab of Thalia Papayannopoulou (University of Washington, USA) report that exposure of HSCs in culture to a small molecule combination that maintains low expression of the Rap1/Ras/PI3K-AKT pathway allowed higher engraftment levels following transplantation in NSG mice. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine for all the fine print.

Reviewing Musculoskeletal Stem Cells for Osteoporosis Treatment

A new review from Jeffrey Kiernan, John E. Davies, and William L. Stanford considers the potential for bone regeneration via the application of skeletal stem cells (SSCs). SSCs represent a rare population of cells residing with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and may be employed to treat conditions such as age-related (type-II) osteoporosis. For a great read, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!