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Highlights of current exciting developments, ranging from research papers to court decisions to industry regulations

October 19, 2017

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Past Buzz

October 15,2017 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Enhanced RGC Generation, Bladder Tissue Engineering, Placental MSC-Treatment of Cardiomyopathy, and MSC-EVs Enhance Survival after Irradiation!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Enhanced Generation of Human Retinal Ganglion Cells

A new report from the labs of Donald J. Zack (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, USA) and Derek S. Welsbie (University of California, USA) describes a novel means to efficiently differentiate and purify retinal ganglion cells (RGC) from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Employing CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing, Sluch et al. created a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line in which an RGC-specific gene controls the expression of a fluorescent reporter and a unique cell-surface protein. Applying this system permitted the construction of an enhanced differentiation protocol and the facile purification of RGCs; see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for all the details.

Status and Further Challenges in Tissue Engineering of the Urinary Bladder

A recent article from the laboratory of Jan Adamowicz (Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland) appraises the current status and future challenges that face scientists working in urinary bladder regeneration. This review article emphasizes the expectations of urologists in the hope that a defined interdisciplinary approach might help to accelerate urinary bladder tissue engineering research. Head on over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for a great read!

Treating Diabetic Cardiomyopathy with Placenta-derived MSCs

Diabetic cardiomyopathy presents with changes in cardiac structure and function in the absence of coronary artery disease and hypertension. As mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display cardioprotective features, a team from the lab of Carsten Tschöpe (Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Germany) sought to assess their therapeutic potential. Excitingly, Van Linthout et al. discovered that intravenous administration of placenta-derived MSCs led to cardioprotection during the early stages of diabetic cardiomyopathy in a mouse model. Could these cells represent an exciting new therapeutic option for human patients? Find out over at STEM CELLS Translational Medicine right now!

MSC-EVs Provide Long-term Survival after Total Body Irradiation

Whole body radiation employed in the conditioning of patients before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation leads to severe side effects; however, a new report from the lab of Claudia Lange (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany) reports that extracellular vesicles-derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-EVs) may provide protection. Overall, Schoefinius et al. now suggest that MSC-EVs promote the survival of hematopoietic stem cells following radiation damage; see STEM CELLS today for a more in-depth view!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

October 10,2017 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Naming MSCs, NHIE Cell Therapy, mESCs go “Surfen”, and Promoting Tendon Differentiation with Fos!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Naming MSCs – The Battle Goes on!

A recent STEM CELLS Translational Medicine Perspective laid out the claim for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to be renamed “medicinal signaling cells”, given their well-known paracrine actions. However, the laboratory of Donald G. Phinney (Scripps Research Institute, Florida, USA) refute this claim in a new STEM CELLS article. They argue that “the paracrine-centric viewpoint and proposed name change ignores a wealth of old and new data that unequivocally demonstrate the stem cell nature of MSCs, and also overlooks a large effort to exploit homologous applications of MSCs in human clinical trials”. Sounds like a fascinating read; what are you waiting for?

Comparing Cell Therapy Candidates for NHIE

Despite neuroprotection by therapeutic hypothermia, the perinatal complication neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (NHIE) suffers from poor neurological prognosis. In their search for a suitable cell therapy candidate for NHIE, the lab of Guillet Benjamin (Aix Marseille University, France) compared ready-to-use human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC) to bankable but allogeneic endothelial progenitors (ECFC). This new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study suggests that while “ECFCs represent an efficient candidate, HUCBC autologous criteria and easier availability make them the ideal candidate for hypoxic-ischemic cell therapy”.

Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells go “surfen” Towards Pluripotency

An interesting new STEM CELLS study from the lab of Kamil Godula (University of California San Diego, USA) suggests that the best way to maintain mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) pluripotency is to go “surfen”! Specifically, Huang et al. describe how surfen, an antagonist of cell surface glycosaminoglycans required for growth factor association with cognate receptors, can inhibit differentiation and promote mESCpluripotency. The authors suggest that targeting the stem cell “glycome” with small molecules such a surfen to silence differentiation cues may represent an efficient means to control stem cell fate.

Early Stage Teno-Lineage Differentiation with Fos

Researchers from the lab of Hong Wei Ouyang and Xiao Chen (Zhejiang University, PR China) have uncovered a new factor that promotes the early differentiation towards a tendon fate. By studying postnatal rat Achilles tendon, Chen et al. discovered an early role for Fos expression and, furthermore, the team demonstrated that Fos overexpression in tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) boosted the expression of tendon markers and improved tendon formation in vivo. For all the fine print, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

October 1,2017 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Endometrial Regenerative Cells, Paralogous Bone Marrow Niche Model, ONS Cell Conduits, and Transplanted Fetal Liver Progenitor Cell Fate!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

ERCs Induce Cardiac Allograft Tolerance

Studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal-like endometrial regenerative cells (ERCs) in various disease models, and now, new research from Hao Wang (Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, China) assesses their application in transplant tolerance. Lan et al. discovered that human ERC-based therapy induced allograft tolerance via the activity of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) when investigating mouse cardiac allografts between different strains. Do ERCs hold promise for therapeutic use in future clinical transplantations? See STEM CELLS Translational Medicinenow to find out!

Proposal of a New Dynamic Paralogous Bone Marrow Niche Model

A lack of agreement into the origins of various bone marrow (BM) stem-cell niches, cell identities, and their physiological roles has led Kevin G. Chen and Pamela G. Robey (NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) to propose a new BM niche model. In their new study, the authors propose a new hypothesis of “paralogous” stem cell niches (PSNs); i.e., progressively altered parallel niches within an individual species throughout the lifespan of the organism. Head over to STEM CELLS now to discover what this new model could mean for precision regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical applications based on BM cell resources.

Promoting Peripheral Nerve Repair with an ONS Cell-Conduit

The team of Fergal J. O'Brien (Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland) recently reported on an exciting new means to promote the repair of peripheral nerve damage. Roche et al. describe the repair of peripheral nerve damage in rats following the transplantation of olfactory derived stem (ONS) cells grown on a collagen and laminin functionalized hyaluronic acid-based nerve guidance conduit (NGC). See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now to find out more about the strategy with the potential to aid millions of patients each year!

Discovering the Fate of Transplanted Fetal Liver Progenitor Cells

A new study from the labs of Dan Yock Young (National University, Singapore) sought to ascertain the long-term fate of human fetal progenitor liver cells following the transplantation into immune-permissive mice. Irudayaswamy et al. discovered that progenitor cells engrafted and differentiate into functional human hepatocytes, functional endothelial cells, and bile duct cells and also aided in the repair of liver fibrosis, with no sign of unwanted cell growth. Overall, this STEM CELLS study suggests that liver progenitor cells transplanted into injured livers maintain a functional role in repair and regeneration.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 25,2017 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - QC for iPSCs, Brain MPCs and MS, EV Therapy to Counter Stroke, and, Wound Healing with Amnion Membrane Hydrogel!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Quality Control for iPSCs!

Therapeutic applications for human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) require a means of first assessing hiPSC quality. Researchers from the lab of Timothy J. Nelson (Mayo Clinic, Minnesota, USA) have now designed a novel means to assess hiPSC quality based on hypersensitivity to the topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide. This new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article describes how the etoposide sensitivity assay (ESA) provides a simple, straightforward method to establish hiPSC quality and function by quantifying the amount of etoposide required to kill treated cells and comparing that value to a standard value associated with high-quality clones.

Changes in Brain MPCs Associate with MS Pathology

The development of multiple sclerosis (MS) correlates with changes to the stem cell containing vasculature. The team of Ellen Iacobaeus (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden) now describes the presence of mesenchymal perivascular cells (MPCs) in human brain vasculature and show that phenotypic changes to these cells during MS progression associate with inflammation, demyelination, and disease duration. The authors suggest that these data support vessel-targeted therapeutic strategies for patients with progressive MS. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine for all the details.

 

EV Therapy to Counter Stroke

A new review article from Thorsten R. Doeppner (University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany) and Bernd Giebel (University of Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen, Germany) seeks to highlight some of the recent advances in the field of stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a therapeutic means to treat stroke. Excitingly, the application of EVs in preclinical stroke studies suggests a better therapeutic response than treatment with stem cells themselves! Read all about it in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine!

Wound Healing with Amnion Membrane Hydrogel

The application of amniotic membrane represents an effective means to promote wound healing, although handling and cost difficulties have limited its use. Now, new research from Sean V. Murphy and Anthony Atala (Wake Forest School of Medicine, North Carolina, USA) describe the development of an easy to produce and apply solubilized amnion membrane-hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel (HA-SAM). Exactingly, this new product functions well in wound treatment/dressing and also overcomes many of the limitations associated with employing fresh, cryopreserved, or dehydrated tissue. For all the fine print, head on over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 21,2017 What’s The Stem Cells Buzz This Week? - Unraveling Kidney Disease with hPSC-Podocytes, Regulation of YAP1 Expression in Osteosarcoma, a New Dry AMD iPSC-Model, and BMSC Study Finds No Endometrial Contribution!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Unraveling Kidney Disease with hPSC-Podocytes

A new study from the laboratories of Benjamin S. Freedman (University of Washington, Seattle, USA) and Kelly M. McNagny (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada) suggests that kidney podocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent a useful modeling tool. Kim et al. demonstrate that hPSC-derived podocytes phenocopy mammalian podocytes at the capillary loop stage, recapitulating key features of ultrastructure, gene expression, and mutant phenotype. See STEM CELLS now to read about how hPSC-derived podocytes could represent a powerful framework for studying human kidney disease and also regeneration.

MZF1 and GABP Regulate YAP1 expression in Osteosarcoma

Cancer stem cells in osteosarcoma express high levels of the pluripotency-associated transcription factor YAP1, a major effector of the tumor suppressive Hippo signaling pathway. Researchers from the lab of Claudio Basilico (NYU School of Medicine, New York, USA) sought to understand the regulation of YAP1 expression in osteosarcomas and discovered that MZF1 and GABP activity is essential for the transcription of YAP1, which then acts with Sox2 to maintain stemness and tumorigenicity. See STEM CELLS now for more details!

A New iPSC-derived Model of Age-related Macular Degeneration

We currently lack treatment strategies for the dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease that represents one of the most common forms of blindness. To aid in the quest for new treatment breakthroughs, a team of researchers led by Majlinda Lako (Newcastle University, UK) developed a disease model for AMD patients with the most common genetic risk factor for the disease, a Complement factor H (CFH) polymorphism in exon 9 (Y402H). Overall, Hallam et al. provide evidence that this new model faithfully mimics key features of AMD and, therefore, may be employed to assess new therapies and understand the pathology of disease. See STEM CELLS now for an eye-catching study!

Lack of Endometrial Contribution by Bone Marrow Stem Cells

While some studies have suggested that bone marrow stem cells could transdifferentiate into cells of the endometrium (the lining of the uterus), the team of James A Deane (Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Australia) had lingering doubts. Now, their new STEM CELLS study reports a lack of evidence for transdifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells into endometrial cells and suggests that misidentification of immune cells led to the contrary findings in previous studies. This new finding may be of value, given the fact that many endometrial regeneration strategies include the use of bone marrow stem cells.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 17,2017 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - MSCs for Clinical Trials, MSC-Exosomes in Cancer Progression, Evolution of Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells, and WJ-MSC Differentiation to Osteoblasts!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Interferon-γ Primed MSCs for Clinical Trials

A large number of studies have demonstrated the safety of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based treatments, and now, the focus has moved onto engineering MSCs to enhance their therapeutic value. Now, a new study from the lab of Edwin M. Horwitz (Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA) now reports on the generation of Interferon-γ (IFNγ) primed MSCs for future application in clinical trials. Guess et al. hope that this strategy will reduce the need to infuse thawed cryopreserved cells, which may present with a reduced cell potency. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine for all the details.

p53 deficient-MSC-Exosomes Promote Cancer Progression

A new study from the labs of Hui Qian and Wenrong Xu (Jiangsu University, PR China) has assessed the impact of p53 status in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on exosome secretion and cancer progression. Mao et al. now report that p53-null bone marrow-derived MSC exosomes deliver elevated levels of UBR2 (ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 2) to target cells to promote gastric cancer development and metastasis via the modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. See STEM CELLS now for all the fine print.

Genetic Evolution of Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells

New research from Carla Boccaccio (University of Torino Medical School, Italy) and Gaetano Finocchiaro (Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico, Milan, Italy) reports the existence of phylogenetically-related glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) in matched primary and recurrent Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) tumors. Orzan et al. also suggest that recurrent GSCs likely pre-exist in the untreated primary tumor and are both mutagenized and positively selected by chemo-radiotherapy. Head over to STEM CELLS now for a deeper delve into this important study.

Epigenetic Regulation of RUNX2 Induction during WJ-MSC Differentiation to Osteoblasts

A recent STEM CELLS study from the lab of Verónica Palma (Universidad de Chile, Chile) sought to discover the mechanisms behind the differentiation of Umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) to immature osteoblasts. Bustos et al. now report that the inhibition of JARID1B histone demethylase activity promotes the expression of the osteoblast master-regulator RUNX2 to promote osteoblastic potential. For all the details on this great new study, make your way over to STEM CELLS now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 14,2017 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Kidney Generation with hPSCs, hPSC Hematopoietic Differentiation, LeX-SSEA1 in NSCs, and Allogeneic ASCs for Heart Disease!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Reviewing Kidney Generation with hPSCs

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent attractive sources for kidney regenerative therapies and a recent review from the labs of Ryuji Morizane and Joseph V. Bonventre (Harvard Institute of Medicine, Boston, USA) aimed to summarize recent studies. These include efforts to induce nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) and kidney cells from hPSCs, and to expand NPCs from both mouse and human embryonic kidneys. Furthermore, the authors discuss possible in vivo cell therapy approaches to regenerate kidneys and the development of bioengineered kidneys. See STEM CELLS now for a fascinating read.

RUNX1c-mediated Control of hPSC Hematopoietic Differentiation

Researchers from the labs of Pablo Menendez (Barcelona University, Spain) and Pedro J. Real (Universidad de Granada, Spain) have recently employed human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) as a model to study roles for the master hematopoietic transcription factor RUNX1 in human embryonic hematopoiesis. In their new STEM CELLS study, Navarro-Montero et al. describe how RUNX1c orchestrates hematopoietic specification of hPSCs, possibly in cooperation with pro-inflammatory signaling. Sounds like exciting reading!

Exploring LeX-SSEA1 in NSCs

The carbohydrate LeX-SSEA1 acts as a cell surface marker for neural stem cells (NSCs); but what is the biological significance of LeX-SSEA1? Research from the team of Francesca Ciccolini (University of Heidelberg, Germany) now demonstrate that surface expression of LeXSSEA1 inversely correlates with proliferative ability, high LeX-SSEA1 levels correlate with quiescence, and that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) promotes LeX-SSEA1 expression. Overall, this new STEM CELLS study suggests that increased expression of LeX-SSEA1 at the cell surface promotes quiescence in NSCs.

Safety Study of Allogeneic ASCs for Ischemic Heart Disease and Heart Failure

A new report from STEM CELLS Translational Medicine describes the results from a recent first-in-human clinical trial evaluating the safety and feasibility of intramyocardial injection of cryopreserved allogeneic adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) for the treatment of ischemic heart disease and ischemic heart failure (IHF). The report, from Jens Kastrup (Rigshospitalet University of Copenhagen, Denmark), concludes that the procedure was both safe and feasible with a tendency towards efficacy. The team hopes to confirm these encouraging results in larger placebo controlled clinical trials.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 11,2017 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Reviewing Stem Cell Bioprinting, Cardiovascular Regeneration with MSCs, Hair Follicle Stem Cell Regulation, and Sepsis and Septic Shock Treatment!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Transplantable Tissue and Organs by Stem Cell Bioprinting

Bioprinting with stem cells holds the potential to generate transplantable tissues and organs. A new report from the lab of Ibrahim T. Ozbolat (Penn State University, Pennsylvania, USA) reviews this evolving field, with a particular focus on bioink materials consisting of biomaterials and living cells. Head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine for what promises to be a great read!

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cardiovascular Regeneration

The next review, from the labs of Marcin Majka (Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland), concentrates on the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the regeneration of the cardiovascular system. The review summarizes preclinical and clinical trials with strong emphasis on mechanisms of MSCs action and provides a comprehensive summary of ongoing and completed studies. Another STEM CELLS Translational Medicine review and another fantastic read!

Regulating Hair Follicle Stem Cells: A Review

Another review (!), this time from Rui Yi (University of Colorado Boulder, USA), aims to divulge all on recent progress in the study of the hair follicle stem cell (HSFC) regulation. HFSCs represent an emerging model system to study mechanisms that regulate dividing and quiescent adult stem cells and this new STEM CELLS study outlines recent progress with a focus on transcription and signaling mechanisms and their implications.

Treating Sepsis and Septic Shock with MSCs?

To conclude this week’s selection of reviews is a report from the lab of Danièle Bensoussan (CHRU de Nancy, France) on the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat sepsis and septic shock. These disorders represent a significant public health issue due to the number of deaths worldwide and the lack of effective treatment. This new review hopes to summarize recent studies in this field and highlight possible MSC mechanisms of action. See STEM CELLS now for all the details!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 8,2017 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? – NSC Regulation, MSC Chondrogenesis, Revealing HSC Heterogeneity, and Fetal Membranes in Regenerative Medicine!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Regulating NSCs via Cdk4 and Insulin-IRS2

Researchers from the labs of Isabel Fariñas (Universidad de Valencia, Spain) and Deborah Burks (CIPF, Valencia, Spain) sought to explore the effects of insulin on adult neural stem cells (NSCs). Chirivella et al. now report that insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) mediates an increase in G1-phase cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity and cell cycle progression in response to insulin, and this promotes terminal differentiation of NSCs. Could this data be employed to construct a rational strategy for efficient neuron generation for the treatment of a wide range of disorders? See STEM CELLS now for the answer!

ROR2 Marks MSCs with Enhanced Chondrogenic Potential

Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a mixed population of cells with differing potential; so, how can we tell them apart? New research from the lab of Anthony P Hollander (University of Liverpool, UK) reveals that MSCs expressing high levels of ROR2 (receptor tyrosine kinase like orphan receptor 2) represent a defined population of cells with enhanced cartilage-producing capabilities. Dickinson et al. hope that these findings may aid in the quest to construct a more effective cell therapy for cartilage injuries. See STEM CELLS for all the details.

Revealing HSC Heterogeneity after Infection

A new study from the labs of Adam L MacLean and Michael PH Stumpf (Imperial College London, London, UK) sought to analyze the heterogeneity of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) system in response to infection (by Trichinella spiralis) to uncover alterations to 3D niche dynamics and migration patterns. Their STEM CELLS study indicates that infection promotes two differing dynamic HSC strategies (a pattern of revisiting previously explored space and a pattern of exploring new space) that may enable mice to cope better in deteriorating HSC-niche microenvironments following infection.

Reviewing the Application of Fetal Membranes in Regenerative Medicine

A recent review article from Rebecca Lim (Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Victoria, Australia) hopes to tell us the history and the possible future regenerative worth of the fetal membrane of the amniotic sac. While the fetal membrane has found clinical use for over a century, recent studies on the membrane and derived stem and stem-like cells have brought this potentially exciting material back into the spotlight. Head on over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine to read more about this old, but new potentially exciting resource!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 3,2017 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? – Hepatic Differentiation, Repairing CNS Damage, Enhancing HSC Engraftment, and SSCs for Osteoporosis Treatment!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Commitment to Hepatic Differentiation via the TCF7L2-PGC1g Axis

Numerous studies have evidenced a link between mitochondrial activity and stem cell fate. In a new STEM CELLS study, the lab of Patricia Renard (University of Namur, Belgium) identifies a novel transcriptional regulatory axis coupling the loss of pluripotency and hepatic differentiation to the initiation of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolic shift. This new axis involves Transcription Factor 7 Like 2 (TCF7L2 - a downstream effector of the Wnt/b‐catenin pathway, repressed during differentiation) and PPARg coactivator 1a (PGC1α - the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, induced during differentiation).

 

SVF Cells Repair CNS Damage via Alternatively Activated Macrophages

Recent studies from the lab of Bruce A. Bunnell (Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, USA) discovered that adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells led to functional, immunological, and pathological improvements in a mouse multiple sclerosis model. Now, Bowles et al demonstrate that SVF cells induce regulatory T cells and alternatively activated macrophages and this helped to reduce cellular infiltrates and attenuate neuroinflammation in central nervous system (CNS) tissues to promote repair. See STEM CELLS for all the details.

Specific in vitro Expansion Conditions Enhance HSC Engraftment in vivo

The necessary ex vivo culture and amplification of adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) can lead to the loss of engraftment and function. Now, the lab of Thalia Papayannopoulou (University of Washington, USA) report that exposure of HSCs in culture to a small molecule combination that maintains low expression of the Rap1/Ras/PI3K-AKT pathway allowed higher engraftment levels following transplantation in NSG mice. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine for all the fine print.

Reviewing Musculoskeletal Stem Cells for Osteoporosis Treatment

A new review from Jeffrey Kiernan, John E. Davies, and William L. Stanford considers the potential for bone regeneration via the application of skeletal stem cells (SSCs). SSCs represent a rare population of cells residing with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and may be employed to treat conditions such as age-related (type-II) osteoporosis. For a great read, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!