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Highlights of current exciting developments, ranging from research papers to court decisions to industry regulations

April 19, 2018

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Past Buzz

April 16,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Prostate Progenitor Cell Activity, Healing by iPSC-Derived MSCs, MINDY1 and ESC Self‐Renewal, and Stem Cell Therapy for Corneal Scarring!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Intestinal Healing By iPSC-Derived MSCs

The generation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may represent a convenient source of autologous cells for therapeutic purposes. To test this approach, researchers from the lab of Steven Dow (Colorado State University, USA) compared iPSC-MSCs with adipose-derived MSCs in a mouse model of intestinal protection. Encouragingly, Soontararak et al. discovered that both MSCs types improved overall intestinal health and healing with equivalent potency and therefore, iPSC-MSCs may represent a new therapy for irritable bowel syndrome and other related diseases/disorders. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for all the fine print.

MAO Loss Impairs Prostate Progenitor Cell Activity

To study the influence of monoamine oxidases (MAOs) during mammalian development, researchers from the laboratory of Boyang Jason Wu (Washington State University, USA) investigated a mouse model lacking both MAO isoforms (A and B). Yin et al. established that MAO loss led to prostate atrophy with reduced prostate basal and stem/progenitor cell activity in adult mice, thereby providing insight into the maintenance of prostate structure and function. Furthermore, the team sees possible implications in their work for the development of new treatments for prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Read all the details at STEM CELLS now.

MINDY1 and Embryonic Stem Cell Self‐Renewal

Previous publications from the lab of Leah A. Vardy (A*STAR, Singapore) determined the critical nature of the polyamine regulator AMD1 for embryonic stem cell self‐renewal. The team now returns with a new study that highlights the relative importance of MINDY1, a new stem cell regulator that acts downstream of the polyamines. James et al. discovered the requirement for high polyamine levels for ESC self‐renewal and that polyamines function, in part, through the promotion of high MINDY1 levels. For more on MINDY1, head over to STEM CELLS now!

Enhanced Stem Cell Therapy for Corneal Scarring

A new study from the lab of James L. Funderburgh (University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA) recently sought to explore the potential for compressed collagen gel (CCG) as a vehicle to deliver corneal stromal stem cells (CSSCs) to suppress corneal stromal scarring in a mouse wound‐healing model and promote regeneration of native transparent tissue. Their new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study now demonstrates that these gels facilitate handling, storage, and transfer of cells to the eye, and gel‐embedded cells exhibit greater potency for corneal regeneration than stem cells alone.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

April 9,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - How Cigarette Smoke affects ASCs, MSC-Cancer Cell Cross-talk, Stem Cell Defect in Transgenic Mice, and Gastric Cancer CSCs!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Cigarette Smoking Weakens ASC Therapeutic Activity

A new study from the labs of Keith L. March and Dmitry O. Traktuev (University of Florida, USA) aimed to discover how cigarette smoking affects the therapeutic activity of adipose stem cells (ASCs). Barwinska et al. determined that cigarette smoking decreases vasculogenic activity and limits the ability of ASCs to improve the recovery of ischemic tissue following systemic infusion. Furthermore, the authors linked this loss in therapeutically relevant functions to the loss of the angiostatic factor Activin A. For all the details, head over to STEM CELLS now!

Cross‐talk of Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Cancer Cells

Cross-talk between cancer cells and stem cells mediated by direct and indirect cellular interactions can lead to cell fusion and the creation of new cancer cell hybrids. A new Review article from the lab of Ralf Hass (Hannover Medical School, Germany) focuses on vesicle‐mediated indirect communication in cancer cell-mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fusion. For more on this thought-provoking topic, make your way over to STEM CELLS now!

Stem Cell Defect in Transgenic Mice

Transplantation studies often employ transgenic mice line expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the direction of the human ubiquitin C promoter (UBC‐GFP mice). However, a new study from the laboratory of Emanuel Nečas (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic) now provides evidence for a specific defect in the hematopoiesis of these model mice that compromises the lymphoid‐primed hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and spleen. For more on this surprising finding, see STEM CELLS ASAP!

PGD2 Controls the Biological Behavior of Gastric Cancer CSCs

While many studies have demonstrated that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) treatment has an anti-tumor effect on gastric cancer, the mechanisms at play remain shrouded in mystery. Now, researchers from the labs of Wenrong Xu and Hui Qian (Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China) report that signaling between PGD2 and its receptor (PTGDR2) restricts self‐renew of gastric cancer CSCs in vitro and suppresses tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo via the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation and nuclear expression. Head over to STEM CELLS for all the fine print on this new study.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

April 5,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - NSC-mediated PD Brain Rejuvenation, Kidney Stem Cell Perspective, Hypoxia Mimetic for MSCs, and Engineered Adenosine-releasing Neurons!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Rejuvenation of the Parkinson's Disease Brain by Grafted NSCs

A new study from the labs of Stefano Pluchino (University of Cambridge, UK) and Bianca Marchetti (University of Catania, Italy) sought to test the ability of neural stem cell (NSC) grafts to “rejuvenate” the regions of the brain affected by Parkinson’s disease. L'Episcopo et al. discovered that NSCs restored nigrostriatal functionality and that graft‐derived astrocytes and Wnt/β‐catenin signaling modulated the activity of endogenous astrocytes and the innate immune response. The authors suggest that this STEM CELLS study may have therapeutic implications for dopaminergic (mDA) neurons restoration in aged Parkinson’s disease brain.

Therapeutic Potential of Kidney c-Kit+ Cells

Many studies have proposed c-Kit-positive cells as putative stem cells or precursors within the kidney and a new Perspective article from Erika B. Rangel (Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil) provides an excellent overview of the field. For all about their progenitor/stem cell properties, kidney regeneration mechanisms, and possible future studies concerning C-Kit positive cells, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

Desferrioxamine Treatment as a Hypoxia Mimetic for MSCs

The hypoxic culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be expensive and difficult to perform, and so researchers from the lab of Taro Takami (Yamaguchi University, Japan) set out to determine the effectiveness of desferrioxamine (DFO), a hypoxia‐mimetic reagent, as an alternative strategy. Metabolome analysis by Fujisawa et al. highlighted similar metabolite patterns, except purine, pyrimidine, and TCA cycle related metabolites, in hypoxia-treated and DFO-treated MSCs, suggesting that DFO treatment might represent a potential substitute for hypoxic culturing. See STEM CELLS now for all the details.

Human Neurons with High Adenosine Release

While adenosine treatment can provide neuroprotection as part of treatment strategies for a range of indications, systemic administration causes many unwanted side effects. To solve this problem researchers from the groups of Oliver Brüstle (University of Bonn) and Philipp Koch (University of Heidelberg, Germany) have engineered human embryonic stem cell-derived neuroepithelial stem cell so that their progeny (neurons and astrocytes) overexpress adenosine. Excitingly, the neurons displayed an excitation-mediated release of adenosine, suggesting their potential therapeutic utility for the local “on‐demand” delivery to treat conditions, such as epilepsy. Head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine for all the fine print.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

April 2,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? – Limbal Epithelial Cell Culture, Stem Cell-mediated Tendon Regeneration, Quality-Quantity Stem Cell Culture, and Muscle Stem Cell Regulation via FoxM1!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Amniotic Membrane as a Substrate for Limbal Epithelial Cells

A new review article out of the lab of Amer Sehic (University of Oslo, Norway) discusses the rationale behind employing altered versus unaltered amniotic membrane (AM) as a culture substrate for the ex vivo expansion of the limbal epithelial cells (LECs) used to treat limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Of note, the choice of culture substrate can affect cell phenotype, and Utheim et al. present the case for the use of denuded (i.e., de‐epithelialized) AM or intact AM and the option of crosslinking AM to increase thermal and mechanical stability, optical transparency, and resistance to collagenase digestion. Head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for what sounds like a highly interesting article.

Guided Stem Cell Fate for Tendon Regeneration

The application of stem cells as a treatment for tendon disorders appears to have a very bright future. A new review article from the lab of Zi Yin (Zhejiang University, China) focuses on the search for bioactive molecules that can potentially induce tenogenesis in adult stem cells. Additionally, Zhang et al. also discuss the molecular regulatory mechanisms of tenogenesis, the various challenges in developing standardized protocols for achieving efficient and reproducible tenogenesis, and future directions for tendon regeneration. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for another excellent review article.

Effect of Quality‐Quantity Culture on Diabetic EPC Function

The low total number and functionality of autologous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) currently hampers their application in ischemic repair and wound healing in diabetic patients. However, a new approach devised by researchers from the lab of Rica Tanaka (Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan) may have solved this problem. Tanaka et al. demonstrate that their quality‐quantity culture (QQc) system restored the vasculogenic and wound‐healing efficacy of murine diabetic EPCs following transplantation into a mouse model, suggesting that their approach may significantly improve cell-based treatments for diabetic wounds and other ischemic diseases. For more, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

FoxM1 Regulation of LncRNAs Enhances the Proliferation and Survival of Muscle Stem Cells

A new research article from the laboratories of Jieping Chen and Yu Hou (Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China) sought to describe the potential function of the FoxM1 transcription factor in muscle satellite cells (SCs). Previous studies had highlighted a role for FoxM1 in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence, apoptosis, and tissue homeostasis. The author’s new research suggests that FoxM1 mediates SC proliferation and survival via the regulation of two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs): Snhg8 and Gm26917. For more of the details on this novel finding, head on over to STEM CELLS now.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

March 29,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - TNF-mediated Stem Cell Fusion, FSTL3-mediated Endothelial Cell Function and Angiogenesis, Definitive Hematopoiesis in iPSCs, and Islet Protection by BMSCs!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Tumor Necrosis Factor Signaling Contributes to Stem Cell Fusion

The fusion of normal and tumorigenic breast epithelial cells with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can lead to the creation of a new cancer cell type. To unravel the mechanisms controlling this process, researchers from the lab of Ralf Hass (Hannover Medical School, Germany) investigated the potential role of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and receptor downstream signaling. Melzer et al. report that the tumor-associated pro‐inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF‐α) can stimulate the in vitro fusion of MSCs and MCF10A breast epithelial cells, thereby contributing to tumor heterogeneity via new hybrid cell formation exhibiting altered properties. Head over to STEM CELLS now for all the details.

Follistatin‐Like 3 enhances iPSC-derived Endothelial Cell Function and Angiogenesis

Endothelial cells (ECs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide for the vast numbers of patient-specific cells required for therapeutic applications. Now, researchers from the laboratory of Andriana Margariti (Queen's University Belfast, UK) report that Follistatin‐Like 3 (FSTL3) expression enhances the functionality and maturity of iPSC-ECs by facilitating β‐catenin nuclear translocation and the inhibition of GSK3β activity and Endothelin‐1 induction. Kelaini et al. hope that FSTL3 overexpression may represent an exciting new means to generate therapeutically-relevant numbers of highly functional cells. Head on over to STEM CELLS now for more on this new study.

Definitive Hematopoiesis in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

A new study from the lab of George J. Murphy (Boston University School of Medicine, USA) has recently reported a chemically-defined, serum- and feeder‐free directed differentiation approach to produce hematopoietic stem‐progenitor cells (HSPCs) and adult‐type progeny from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Leung et al. also established the stage‐specific roles for Notch and the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) signaling to hematopoietic progenitor development and the production of downstream definitive, adult‐type erythroblasts. For more details on this promising new advance, see STEM CELLS now!

BMSCs Protect Islets against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress‐induced Apoptosis

A new study from the labs of Nianqiao Gong and Weijie Zhang (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China) sought to investigate how bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) promote favorable outcomes of islet transplantation. He et al. now report that BMSCs protect grafted islets against endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)‐induced apoptosis during early stages after transplantation, a finding that may provide a new arena for development for therapies aiming to improve outcomes of islet transplantation. See STEM CELLS now for all the fine print.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

March 12,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - MPCs and Atherosclerosis, Adhesive Interactions of MSCs, Neuroprotection by PSC-MSCs, Perspective on Diabetic Stroke Therapy!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Mesodermal Progenitor Cells in Atherosclerosis

A recent STEM CELLS study from the lab of Hyo-Soo Kim (Seoul National University Hospital, Korea) aimed to investigate the link between mesodermal progenitor cells (MPC) from the adult bone marrow and atherosclerosis, the buildup of plaque inside your arteries. Cho et al. discovered that Lin‐CD29+Sca‐1+/PDGFRα‐ MPCs with tripotent differentiation capacity mobilized into the peripheral blood and infiltrated the artery under the influence of atherosclerosis-related cytokines. However, the atherosclerotic milieu does not affect Lin‐CD29+Sca‐1+/PDGFRα+ unipotential MPCs. Sounds like a fascinating study!

Adhesive Interactions of MSCs in Flowing Blood

The adhesive nature of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents one potentially overlooked parameter affecting their infusion as a therapeutic intervention. New research from Gerard B. Nash (University of Birmingham, UK) now establishes that the adhesive behavior of flowing MSC and their ability to stick to surfaces depends on their origin, as this influences how they interact with the platelets in the blood. Sherrif et al. suggest that their findings may have significant implications for therapeutic infusions of MSC, so head on over to STEM CELLS now to read more!

PSC-MSCs Are More Neuroprotective than Fetal MSCs

The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) relies on the secretion of paracrine acting factors, and new research from Kate E. Hawkins and Pascale V. Guillot (UCL, UK) sought to compare MSCs derived from different sources. Interestingly, their new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study suggests that MSCs differentiated from pluripotent stem cells (PSC-MSCs) secrete factors that provide greater neuroprotection in the hypoxic-ischemic mouse brain when compared to MSCs from a fetal source (amniotic fluid). Overall, this new study highlights PSC-MSCs as a therapeutically relevant treatment for a range of indications.


Cell-Based and Exosome Therapy in Diabetic Stroke

Patients with diabetes mellitus who suffer a stroke have worse neurological outcomes and long-term functional recovery than non-diabetic stroke patients. To foster further discussions and encourage new therapeutic developments, Jieli Chen (Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA) brings us a Perspective article that summarizes current knowledge and highlights promising cell-based and exosome therapy for diabetic stroke. Head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for a fascinating read.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

March 4,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - 3D CB-HSPC Culture, PDLSCs and RGC Survival, Anti‐angiogenic MACS, and How Sleep and Epigenetics affect Neurogenesis!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Effects of 3D-ECM Constructs on CB-HSPC

Classical 2D culturing techniques employed to amplify cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) number lead to the loss of the most primitive and most therapeutically relevant stem cell content. However, new research from the labs of Graça Almeida-Porada and Shay Soker (Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA) now demonstrates that switching from 2D culture conditions to 3D liver cell-coated extracellular-matrix constructs leads to the increased maintenance of primitive HSPCs, thereby increasing the therapeutic potential of cord blood samples. See this new article by Mokhtari et al. at STEM CELLS now!

PDLSCs Promote RGC Survival and Axon Regeneration

Previous research from Chi Pui Pang and Mingzhi Zhang (Joint Shantou International Eye Center of Shantou University/Chinese University of Hong Kong, China) discovered the enormous potential for human periodontal ligament-derived stem cells (PDLSCs) in retinal cell replacement. Now, Cen et al. report that PDLSCs can reduce retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration induced by optic nerve injury and promote axon regeneration in vitro and in vivo. The authors hope that the newly described neuroprotective role of PDLSCs may find use in treating human patients in the near future. See STEM CELLS now for all the details.

MACs turn Anti‐angiogenic in Diabetes

Researchers from the lab of Reinhold J. Medina (Queen's University Belfast, UK) recently investigated how diabetes may affect treatment of diabetic-related ischemia with myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs). Chambers et al. discovered that MACs isolated from peripheral blood are less reparative and more inflammatory in the diabetic environment, making them less useful in tissue repair and regeneration. However, the authors hope that targeting IL1β, a key mediator of MACs anti-angiogenic nature in response to diabetes, may provide a means to restore their desired pro-reparative effect. For that and more, head over to STEM CELLS now!

Sleep, Epigenetics, and Adult Neurogenesis

A new review in STEM CELLS from the group of Masanori Sakaguchi (University of Tsukuba, Japan) details our current understanding of the influence of both sleep and epigenetics on adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Akers et al. suggest that further insight into the interactions between sleep-related neural processes and epigenetic mechanisms may lead to novel strategies to prevent or treat a wide range of disorders. For what sounds like an enthralling read, head over to STEM CELLS now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

February 26,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - AR and Wnt Signaling in the Prostate, Stem Cell Therapies for Brain Cancer, ASC-Containing Hydrogels, Cardiac Cell Therapy!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Roles of AR in Prostatic Development and Regeneration

A new study from the lab of Zijie Sun (Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, USA) recently set forth to discover how the androgen and Wnt signaling pathways regulate prostate development, maturation, and regeneration. Towards this aim, He et al. developed new model mice and established an indispensable role for the androgen receptor (AR) in Wnt-responsive cells during prostate development, morphogenesis, and regeneration. See STEM CELLS now for all the additional details.

Autologous Stem cell Therapies for Brain Tumors

An exciting new study from Khalid Shah (Harvard Medical School, MA, USA) has recently explored the potential for engineered neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for the treatment of brain cancer. Bhere et al. established that NSCs engineered to express tumor-specific death-receptor ligand and suicide-inducing proteins display anti-tumor activity after synthetic-extracellular-matrix encapsulation and transplantation into a mouse model of brain cancer. For more detail on this fantastic study, see STEM CELLS now!

 

ASC-Containing Hydrogels as Adjuncts to Autografts

A new study from the lab of Robert J. Christy (United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, Texas, USA) sought to study the potential for adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in the treatment of burn wounds. Burmeister et al. assessed feasibility and efficacy of in situ ASC delivery via PEGylated fibrin (FPEG) hydrogels as adjuncts to meshed split-thickness skin grafts in a porcine model. Excitingly, the results demonstrate that FPEG acts as both scaffolding to prevent contraction and as a delivery vehicle for ASCs to accelerate angiogenesis. For more details regarding this encouraging new strategy, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

New Future Directions for Cardiac Cell Therapy

Both direct and indirect mechanisms mediate tissue regeneration by stem cell therapy, although several limitations currently hamper clinical application. Now, a concise review from the lab of Ke Cheng (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University, USA) introduces current barriers and limitations associated with stem cell therapies for ischemic heart disease treatment. These include low retention rate, tumor growth risks, off-target migration, and short-life in storage. Furthermore, Tang et al. provide potential solutions by summarizing the latest technological developments employed to improve cell retention, reduce transplantation risk, and target cells to the injury. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for a great read!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

February 22,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - iPSC Quality Control, MSCs for Kidney Repair, Endometriosis-derived MSCs, and Stem Cell Protection of Brain Damage!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Quality Control in iPSC Genomic Integrity Analysis

Reprogramming and extended in vitro culture can promote the accumulation of genomic abnormalities in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), leading to a need for the careful monitoring of genomic stability. Now, a new STEM CELLS article from the lab of John De Vos (Univ. Montpellier, France) reviews the “quality control” of iPSCs; how to classify these abnormalities, the tools for their detection, and the quality metrics employed for decision-making in a research and clinical setting. Assou et al. also report simple recommendations for the minimum genome integrity checks when working with any type of pluripotent stem cells.

Targeting MSCs to the Ischemic Kidney

New research from the labs of Xiangyang Zhu and Lilach O. Lerman (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA) recently assessed how coating with an antibody (ab) specific for an injured-kidney specific antigen (KIM1) might boost mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) homing, grafting, and kidney repair. Their STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study discovered that KIM1-ab-coated MSCs exhibited selective homing and greater kidney retention following systemic administration into a mouse model, which led to improved renal perfusion and capillary density and attenuated oxidative damage, apoptosis, and fibrosis. Zou et al. suggest that this novel method might be useful to selectively target injured kidneys and supports further development of strategies to enhance cell-based treatment of kidney injury.

Endometriosis-derived MSCs: A new Target?

An exciting new study from the lab of Hugh S. Taylor (Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA) recently set out to discover if cells derived from endometriosis, the ectopic growth of endometrial tissue, can enter the circulation and propagate in a mouse model. Their new STEM CELLS study now established that endometriosis-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) enter the circulation in response to CXCL12 to disseminate the disease. Therefore, Li et al. highlight endometriosis MSCs as potential targets for endometriosis therapies.

MSCs Protect from Brain Damage

Recent research from the groups of Dezhi Mu and Yi Qu (Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China) has centered on the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as protective agents for the treatment of brain damage. Their new STEM CELLS study discovered that MSC treatment following hypoxic-ischemic injury increased BDNF expression and reduced mTOR pathway activation, resulting in increased autophagy and enhanced neuroprotection. Zheng et al. hope that their research may provide the impetus for the exploration of new strategies for treating neonates with similar brain injuries.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

February 18,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Repolarizing Macrophages, Understanding CD133, Corneal transplantation, and Short Telomeres in CPCs!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

MSC Delivery of Interferon‐γ Repolarizes Macrophages

The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNγ) can decrease tumor proliferation by altering the tumor microenvironment (TME); however, trials employing systemic administrations have failed and displayed detrimental side effects. For these reasons, researchers from the laboratory of Edwin M. Horwitz (Emory University, Atlanta, USA) explored the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) engineered to overexpress IFNγ as a possible solution. Their newSTEM CELLS study employing an intra-adrenal mouse model of neuroblastoma now demonstrates that direct delivery of IFNγ to the TME by MSCs transiently induces inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization to reduce tumor burden, but also avoid systemic toxicities.

Role of CD133 in Renal Tubular Cells

A new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study from the laboratory of Benedetta Bussolati (University of Torino, Italy) sought to discover the biological function of CD133-positive stem cells in renal repair. Their analysis suggests that CD133 molecule may act as a permissive factor for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, regulating cell proliferative response after damage, while also limiting cell senescence. The authors hope that this data may contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in renal tissue repair.

Investigating Corneal Transplantation following CLET

A new STEM CELLS report from Francisco C. Figueiredo (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK) brings us the results of a new trial to investigate corneal transplantation, or penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), following autologous cultivated limbal epithelial stem cell transplantation (CLET). The author’s findings advocate a two‐stage procedure for first restoring the ocular surface followed by corneal transplantation later.

Short Telomeres Regulate CPC Fate

Age-associated factors, such as the shortening of telomeres, may significantly affect the regenerative potential of stem and progenitor cells. Researchers from the laboratory of Nirmala Hariharan (University of California at Davis, USA) now describe in a new STEM CELLS study how the interplay between short telomeres, p53, and autophagy regulate the age‐associated changes in cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) fate. Matsumoto et al. hope that data such as this may help to identify clinically relevant strategies to rejuvenate aged CPCs and enhance their influence on myocardial repair and regeneration.

 

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!