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Recently Published

Summaries of the most recent articles published in STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

August 25, 2019

As calorie restriction can induce β cell regeneration, researchers led by Po Sing Leung (Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong) recently evaluated a role for sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a calorie restriction mimic, in the stimulation of β‐cell regeneration. Writing in STEM CELLS, Wu et al.

August 25, 2019

Clonal analysis in histology and single-cell transcriptomics have shed new light on our understanding of forebrain germinal activity at pre‐ and post‐natal time points.

August 25, 2019

In a new STEM CELLS study, researchers led by Fa‐Ming Chen and Bei‐Min Tian (Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China) sought to understand how polarized macrophage phenotypes influenc

August 25, 2019

Researchers from the lab of Daigo Ochiai (Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan) recently investigated the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of human amniotic fluid stem cell (hAFSC)‐based treatment for fetal myelomeningocele (MMC), due to its poor diagnosis and lack of prenatal treatments.

August 18, 2019

Previous research from the lab of Chandra Shekhar Mayanil (Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute, Chicago, IL, USA) established that Folate Receptor-α (FRα) translocates to the nucleus and upregulates the transcription of pluripotency-associated genes.

August 18, 2019

The growing interest surrounding the therapeutic application of purified and concentrated regenerative factors secreted by mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) has recently focused on exosomes, which are now understood to be critical active pharmaceutical ingredients of MSC‐based therapies.

August 18, 2019

A new study from the labs of Roberto Piacentini and Claudio Grass

August 18, 2019

Multiple stem cell types exhibit inherent cancer tropism, while engineered stem cells have been used as therapeutic agents to specifically target cancer cells. More recently, stem cells engineering has been employed to target multiple surface‐receptors on tumor cells, as well as endothelial and immune cells of the tumor microenvironment.

Past Buzz

August 25,2019 Single-Cell Probing of Neural Progenitors

Clonal analysis in histology and single-cell transcriptomics have shed new light on our understanding of forebrain germinal activity at pre‐ and post‐natal time points. Now, Guillaume Marcy and Olivier Raineteau discuss recent contributions of these approaches in probing lineage progression and the competence of neural progenitor cells in a new STEM CELLS review article.

August 25,2019 M2 Macrophages Enhance Cementoblastic Differentiation

In a new STEM CELLS study, researchers led by Fa‐Ming Chen and Bei‐Min Tian (Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China) sought to understand how polarized macrophage phenotypes influence the cementoblastic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Li et al. now report that M2 macrophages induce PDLSCs to differentiate into cementoblasts via the Akt and JNK signaling pathways. The authors hope that their findings will be the first step towards employing the modulation of macrophage polarization as a therapy for complete periodontal regeneration.

August 25,2019 In Utero hAFSCs Protect Spinal Cord from MMC

Researchers from the lab of Daigo Ochiai (Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan) recently investigated the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of human amniotic fluid stem cell (hAFSC)‐based treatment for fetal myelomeningocele (MMC), due to its poor diagnosis and lack of prenatal treatments. Reporting in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, Abe et al. establish that in utero hAFSC treatment in rats induces direct coverage of the spinal cord and hepatocyte growth factor secretion, which suppressed neural damage, such as neurodegeneration and astrogliosis, and promoted neural regeneration. The authors believe that hAFSC treatment could, therefore, improve the prognosis of MMC.

August 18,2019 Role of FRα in Glial De-differentiation

Previous research from the lab of Chandra Shekhar Mayanil (Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute, Chicago, IL, USA) established that Folate Receptor-α (FRα) translocates to the nucleus and upregulates the transcription of pluripotency-associated genes. The team returns with a new STEM CELLS study that describes how acetylation and phosphorylation of FRα favor its nuclear translocation in the presence of folate, causing a phenotypic switch from differentiated glial cells to de‐differentiated cells. Monick et al. offer a plausible mechanism of how high folate may trigger the de‐differentiation of glial cells and could induce tumorigenesis in the cranial neural crest-derived brain cells in the pediatric population via FRα.

 

August 18,2019 Preclinical MSC-Exosomes: A Review

The growing interest surrounding the therapeutic application of purified and concentrated regenerative factors secreted by mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) has recently focused on exosomes, which are now understood to be critical active pharmaceutical ingredients of MSC‐based therapies. A recent STEM CELLS review article from the lab of Johnathon D. Anderson (University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA) now summarizes the current state of preclinical development of MSC-derived exosome therapeutics parsed from over 200 peer-reviewed reports utilizing various animal models, Furthermore, the authors discuss opportunities that may be addressed that would help to strategically advance the field of MSC-derived exosome therapeutics.

August 18,2019 Herpes Simplex Virus Impairs Adult Neurogenesis

A new study from the labs of Roberto Piacentini and Claudio Grassi (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy)  provides novel evidence that herpes simplex virus type‐1 (HSV‐1) infection reduces neural stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation, thus affecting adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Writing in STEM CELLS, Li Puma et al. suggest the neurogenic niche of the hippocampus as a highly vulnerable target of HSV‐1 and add a new layer of information on the pathogenic role of HSV‐1 in neurodegenerative diseases. Considering the primary purpose of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory, the effects of HSV‐1 on neural stem cells might significantly contribute to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.

August 18,2019 Engineered Stem Cells for Targeted Cancer Therapy

Multiple stem cell types exhibit inherent cancer tropism, while engineered stem cells have been used as therapeutic agents to specifically target cancer cells. More recently, stem cells engineering has been employed to target multiple surface‐receptors on tumor cells, as well as endothelial and immune cells of the tumor microenvironment. In a new review published in STEM CELLS, researchers led by Sanam L. Kavari and Khalid Shah (Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA) discuss the rationales and strategies of developing multiple receptor-targeted stem cells, their mechanisms of action, and the promises and challenges that they hold as cancer therapeutics.

August 14,2019 β-Cell Mass Formation in Stem Cell-Derived Implants

A recent study from the lab of Daniel G. Pipeleers (Brussels Free University, Belgium) reported on ex vivo device‐encapsulated human embryonic stem cell‐derived pancreatic endoderm implants in mice that established a metabolically adequate functional β‐cell mass. Now, Robert et al. describe the optimization steps used to enhance this protocol in a STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study. The authors investigated the formation of a β‐cell mass inside the device to identify the underlying mechanisms and conditions that reduce variability and, in doing so, elucidated a protocol that resulted in the more consistent formation of a glucose‐controlling β‐cell mass.

August 14,2019 Predicting CPC Exosome Function with PLSR

Exosomes derived from cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) can aid recovery from the severe right ventricular heart failure associated with congenital heart disease. In a recent STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study, researchers from the lab of Michael E. Davis (Georgia Institute of Technology & Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA) use partial least squares regression (PLSR) to show how miRNA content from monolayer and aggregated CPC exosomes relates to in vitro angiogenesis and antifibrosis responses. Trac et al. hope that PLSR modeling of exosome miRNA can inform preclinical trials and predict new promising CPC therapies.

August 14,2019 CD71 as a Negative Selection Marker for Neurons

A recent STEM CELLS study from the lab of Jan Pruszak (University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany) describes an exhaustive characterization of neural cell types by surface antigens, exploiting human pluripotent stem cell‐derived neural cell systems. Menon et al. now provide a catalogue of surface antigens expressed in the neural lineage, identify the transferrin receptor‐1 (TFR1; CD71) as differentially expressed in neural stem cells and differentiated neurons, and describe a role for MYCN in maintaining CD71 expression in proliferating neural cells. Finally, the team report that human stem cell‐derived neurons lack CD71 surface expression and that the observed differential expression can be used to identify and enrich CD71− neuronal derivatives from heterogeneous cultures.