Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) closely resemble mouse epiblast stem cells exhibiting primed pluripotency unlike mouse ESCs (mESCs), which acquire a naïve pluripotent state. Efforts have been made to trigger naïve pluripotency in hESCs for subsequent unbiased lineage-specific differentiation, a common conundrum faced by primed pluripotent hESCs due to heterogeneity in gene expression existing within and between hESC lines.
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“In marrow MSC, depolymerization of cytoplasmic actin leads to its cofilin dependent translocation into the nucleus where it forms actin rods. Intranuclear actin results in YAP export and RUNX2 dependent osteogenesis.”
Model for the action of Cannabinoid-Receptor 2 signaling in HSC formation. CB/CNR2 signaling promotes PGE2 synthesis in the Aorta-Gonad-Mesonephros (AGM) region during hematopoietic niche formation (18-24hpf) via the up-regulation of COX-2, increasing Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC) production. Newly formed HSCs express CNR2; upon CB ligand binding, P-selectin expression is up-regulated promoting HSC movement from the AGM to the Caudal Hematopoietic Tissue (CHT, 30-38hpf) and the thymus (30-120hpf).
Model for the in situ mature megakaryocytic (MM) production of factors required to generate thrombin cleaved osteopontin (tcOPN), revealing the SVVYGLR cryptic binding site for α9β1 and α4β1 which are known to be expressed by hemopoietic stem cells (HSC). tcOPN has previously bee shown to be important in HSC migration, proliferation, differentiation and mobilization. (FX, factor x; FV, factor v; FXa, activated FX; FVa, activated FV; PT, prothrombin; OBL, (cells of the) osteoblastic lineage.)