Neural stem cells (NSCs) intrinsically migrate to sites of brain tumors, and engineered NSCs offer a promising mechanism for local delivery of therapeutic agents. While many groups have observed that therapeutically modified NSCs migrate selectively to glioma foci, quantitative assessments of NSC migration efficiency and local distribution at tumor sites, as well as tumor coverage estimated for the therapeutics delivered by these NSCs, have been difficult to perform. In this article, we present a quantitative analysis of immunostained serially sectioned formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain tissue across multiple test animals, thereby providing a paradigm facilitating optimization of this and other cell-based therapies.
Hippo pathway effectors Yap and Taz play key roles in cell proliferation and tissue growth. We analyzed Taz in comparison with Yap in muscle stem cells. Taz promoted proliferation, a function shared with Yap. However, Taz also enhanced differentiation into myotubes, unlike Yap. Muscle growth was affected in Taz (Wwtr1–/–) knockout (KO) mice, while KO of Yap produced a clear regeneration deficit. Taz regulates some genes independently of Yap, and Taz also interacts with proteins distinct from Yap, mainly involved in myogenesis/cytoskeleton. In particular, Taz operates through Tead4 to enhance differentiation. In summary, Taz and Yap have overlapping functions in promoting myoblast proliferation but later, Taz also enhances myogenic differentiation.
Researchers studying the effects of iPSC-MSCs treatment in an in vivo mouse model discover a novel immunomodulatory mechanism involving caspase proteins