The article discusses the various fabrication and customization methodologies capable of producing cell mimicking microparticles (CMMPs), as well as which of these techniques is optimal for particular applications or compatible with specific materials. The Concise Review describes current and potential applications in tissue engineering/regenerative medicine, drug delivery, diagnostic tools, and more. Also included are expected timelines as to when such applications are likely to be adopted and suggestions on where future development of this technology should be focused for producing more accurate cell mimics. The readers should be able to easily identify the pros and cons of the various fabrication procedures as they relate to different applications, as well as how the customization methods can enhance CMMP-based experiments or therapies.
It remains a challenging era for the clinical development of improved cell therapy strategies for critical limb ischemia (CLI). For the first time, we have the capacity to generate the cells to model complete vessel formation from exogenous allocgeneic and or autologous sources using combinatorial delivery of vessel-forming endothelial precursor cells, with pro-angiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell, and vessel-stabilizing mesenchymal stem cell, within implantable decellularized matricies in vivo. Unfortunately, the morbidity and mortality from CLI remains unacceptably high and the need for well-controlled translational studies in this area cannot be overemphasized. Thus, careful preclinical evaluation of emerging concepts and technologies are critical for the expedited development of cell therapy trials for CLI.
New research demonstrates how proinflammatory stimuli can promote the production of extracellular vesicles from MSCs with enhanced immunomodulatory capacity.